| The Status of Woman in Islam By Jamal
Women in Ancient Civilization
WOMEN IN ISLAM
1. The Spiritual Aspect
2. The Social Aspect
3. The Economic Aspect
4. The political
Family, society and ultimately the whole of mankind
is treated by Islam on an ethical basis. Differentiation
in sex is neither a credit nor a drawback for the sexes.
Therefore, when we talk about status of woman in Islam
it should not lead us to think that Islam has no specific
guidelines, limitations, responsibilities and obligations
for men. What makes one valuable and respectable in
the eyes of Allah, the Creator of mankind and the universe,
is neither one's prosperity, position, intelligence,
physical strength nor beauty, but only one's Allah-consciousness
and awareness (taqwa). However, since in the Western
culture and in cultures influenced by it, there exists
a disparity between men and women there is more need
for stating Islam's position on important issues in
a clear way.
Dr. Jamal Badawi's essay, The Status of Women in Islam,
was originally published in our quarterly journal, Al-lttihad,
Vol. 8, No. 2, Sha'ban 1391/Sept 1971. Since then it
has been one of our most-demanded publications. We thank
Br. Jamal for permitting us to reprint his essay. We
hope it will clarify many of the misconceptions.
Director Dept. of Education and Training
MSA of U.S. and Canada
P.O. Box 38 Plainfield, IN 46168 USA
Jumada al Thani 1400 April 1980
The status of women in society is neither a new issue
nor is it a fully settled one.
The position of Islam on this issue has been among
the subjects presented to the Western reader with the
This paper is intended to provide a brief and authentic
exposition of what Islam stands for in this regard.
The teachings of Islam are based essentially on the
Qur'an (God's revelation) and Hadeeth (elaboration by
The Qur'an and the Hadeeth, properly and unbiasedly
understood, provide the basic source of authentication
for any position or view which is attributed to Islam.
The paper starts with a brief survey of the status
of women in the pre-Islamic era. It then focuses on
these major questions: What is the position of Islam
regarding the status of woman in society? How similar
or different is that position from "the spirit
of the time," which was dominant when Islam was
revealed? How would this compare with the "rights"
which were finally gained by woman in recent decades?
II. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES
One major objective of this paper is to provide a fair
evaluation of what Islam contributed (or failed to contribute)
toward the restoration of woman's dignity and rights.
In order to achieve this objective, it may be useful
to review briefly how women were treated in general
in previous civilizations and religions, especially
those which preceded Islam (Pre-610 C.E.). Part of the
information provided here, however, describes the status
of woman as late as the nineteenth century, more than
twelve centuries after Islam.
Women in Ancient Civilization
Describing the status of the Indian woman, Encyclopedia
In India, subjection was a cardinal principle. Day
and night must women be held by their protectors in
a state of dependence says Manu. The rule of inheritance
was agnatic, that is descent traced through males to
the exclusion of females.
In Hindu scriptures, the description of a good wife
is as follows: "a woman whose mind, speech and
body are kept in subjection, acquires high renown in
this world, and, in the next, the same abode with her
In Athens, women were not better off than either the
Indian or the Roman women.
"Athenian women were always minors, subject to
some male - to their father, to their brother, or to
some of their male kin.
Her consent in marriage was not generally thought to
be necessary and "she was obliged to submit to
the wishes of her parents, and receive from them her
husband and her lord, even though he were stranger to
A Roman wife was described by an historian as: "a
babe, a minor, a ward, a person incapable of doing or
acting anything according to her own individual taste,
a person continually under the tutelage and guardianship
of her husband."
In the Encyclopedia Britannica, we find a summary of
the legal status of women in the Roman civilization:
In Roman Law a woman was even in historic times completely
dependent. If married she and her property passed into
the power of her husband . . . the wife was the purchased
property of her husband, and like a slave acquired only
for his benefit. A woman could not exercise any civil
or public office . could not be a witness, surety, tutor,
or curator; she could not adopt or be adopted, or make
will or contract. Among the Scandinavian races women
under perpetual tutelage, whether married or unmarried.
As late as the Code of Christian V, at the end of the
17th Century, it was enacted that if a woman married
without the consent of her tutor he might have, if he
wished, administration and usufruct of her goods during
According to the English Common Law:
...all real property which a wife held at the time
of a marriage became a possession of her husband. He
was entitled to the rent from the land and to any profit
which might be made from operating the estate during
the joint life of the spouses. As time passed, the English
courts devised means to forbid a husband's transferring
real property without the consent of his wife, but he
still retained the right to manage it and to receive
the money which it produced. As to a wife's personal
property, the husband's power was complete. He had the
right to spend it as he saw fit.
Only by the late nineteenth Century did the situation
start to improve. "By a series of acts starting
with the Married women's Property Act in 1870, amended
in 1882 and 1887, married women achieved the right to
own property and to enter contracts on a par with spinsters,
widows, and divorcees." As late as the Nineteenth
Century an authority in ancient law, Sir Henry Maine,
wrote: "No society which preserves any tincture
of Christian institutions is likely to restore to married
women the personal liberty conferred on them by the
Middle Roman Law."
In his essay The Subjection of Women, John Stuart Mill
We are continually told that civilization and Christianity
have restored to the woman her just rights. Meanwhile
the wife is the actual bondservant of her husband; no
less so, as far as the legal obligation goes, than slaves
commonly so called.
Before moving on to the Qur'anic decrees concerning
the status of woman, a few Biblical decrees may shed
more light on the subject, thus providing a better basis
for an impartial evaluation. In the Mosaic Law, the
wife was betrothed. Explaining this concept, the Encyclopedia
Biblica states: "To betroth a wife to oneself meant
simply to acquire possession of her by payment of the
purchase money; the betrothed is a girl for whom the
purchase money has been paid." From the legal point
of view, the consent of the girl was not necessary for
the validation of her marriage. "The girl's consent
is unnecessary and the need for it is nowhere suggested
in the Law."
As to the right of divorce, we read in the Encyclopedia
Biblica: "The woman being man's property, his right
to divorce her follows as a matter of course."
The right to divorce was held only by man. "In
the Mosaic Law divorce was a privilege of the husband
only .... "
The position of the Christian Church until recent centuries
seems to have been influenced by both the Mosaic Law
and by the streams of thought that were dominant in
its contemporary cultures. In their book, Marriage East
and West, David and Vera Mace wrote:
Let no one suppose, either, that our Christian heritage
is free of such slighting judgments. It would be hard
to find anywhere a collection of more degrading references
to the female sex than the early Church Fathers provide.
Lecky, the famous historian, speaks of (these fierce
incentives which form so conspicuous and so grotesque
a portion of the writing of the Fathers . . . woman
was represented as the door of hell, as the mother of
all human ills. She should be ashamed at the very thought
that she is a woman. She should live in continual penance
on account of the curses she has brought upon the world.
She should be ashamed of her dress, for it is the memorial
of her fall. She should be especially ashamed of her
beauty, for it is the most potent instrument of the
devil). One of the most scathing of these attacks on
woman is that of Tertullian: Do you know that you are
each an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours
lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live
too. You are the devil's gateway: you are the unsealer
of that forbidden tree; you are the first deserters
of the divine law; you are she who persuades him whom
the devil was not valiant enough to attack. You destroyed
so easily God's image, man. On account of your desert
- that is death - even the Sop of God had to die). Not
only did the church affirm the inferior status of woman,
it deprived her of legal rights she had previously enjoyed.
III. WOMAN IN ISLAM
In the midst of the darkness that engulfed the world,
the divine revelation echoed in the wide desert of Arabia
with a fresh, noble, and universal message to humanity:
"O Mankind, keep your duty to your Lord who created
you from a single soul and from it created its mate
(of same kind) and from them twain has spread a multitude
of men and women" (Qur'an 4: 1).
A scholar who pondered about this verse states: "It
is believed that there is no text, old or new, that
deals with the humanity of the woman from all aspects
with such amazing brevity, eloquence, depth, and originality
as this divine decree."
Stressing this noble and natural conception, them Qur'an
He (God) it is who did create you from a single soul
and therefrom did create his mate, that he might dwell
with her (in love)...(Qur'an 7:189)
The Creator of heavens and earth: He has made for you
pairs from among yourselves ...Qur'an 42:1 1
And Allah has given you mates of your own nature, and
has given you from your mates, children and grandchildren,
and has made provision of good things for you. Is it
then in vanity that they believe and in the grace of
God that they disbelieve? Qur'an 16:72
The rest of this paper outlines the position of Islam
regarding the status of woman in society from its various
aspects - spiritually, socially, economically and politically.
1. The Spiritual Aspect
The Qur'an provides clear-cut evidence that woman iscompletely
equated with man in the sight of God interms of her
rights and responsibilities. The Qur'an states:
"Every soul will be (held) in pledge for its deeds"
(Qur'an 74:38). It also states:
...So their Lord accepted their prayers, (saying):
I will not suffer to be lost the work of any of you
whether male or female. You proceed one from another
...(Qur'an 3: 195).
Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has
faith, verily to him will We give a new life that is
good and pure, and We will bestow on such their reward
according to the their actions. (Qur'an 16:97, see also
Woman according to the Qur'an is not blamed for Adam's
first mistake. Both were jointly wrong in their disobedience
to God, both repented, and both were forgiven. (Qur'an
2:36, 7:20 - 24). In one verse in fact (20:121), Adam
specifically, was blamed.
In terms of religious obligations, such as the Daily
Prayers, Fasting, Poor-due, and Pilgrimage, woman is
no different from man. In some cases indeed, woman has
certain advantages over man. For example, the woman
is exempted from the daily prayers and from fasting
during her menstrual periods and forty days after childbirth.
She is also exempted from fasting during her pregnancy
and when she is nursing her baby if there is any threat
to her health or her baby's. If the missed fasting is
obligatory (during the month of Ramadan), she can make
up for the missed days whenever she can. She does not
have to make up for the prayers missed for any of the
above reasons. Although women can and did go into the
mosque during the days of the prophet and thereafter
attendance et the Friday congregational prayers is optional
for them while it is mandatory for men (on Friday).
This is clearly a tender touch of the Islamic teachings
for they are considerate of the fact that a woman may
be nursing her baby or caring for him, and thus may
be unable to go out to the mosque at the time of the
prayers. They also take into account the physiological
and psychological changes associated with her natural
2. The Social Aspect
a) As a child and an adolescent
Despite the social acceptance of female infanticide
among some Arabian tribes, the Qur'an forbade this custom,
and considered it a crime like any other murder.
"And when the female (infant) buried alive - is
questioned, for what crime she was killed." (Qur'an
Criticizing the attitudes of such parents who reject
their female children, the Qur'an states:
When news is brought to one of them, of (the Birth
of) a female (child), his face darkens and he is filled
with inward grief! With shame does he hide himself from
his people because of the bad news he has had! Shall
he retain her on (sufferance) and contempt, or bury
her in the dust? Ah! What an evil (choice) they decide
on? (Qur'an 16: 58-59).
Far from saving the girl's life so that she may later
suffer injustice and inequality, Islam requires kind
and just treatment for her. Among the sayings of Prophet
Muhammad (P.) in this regard are the following:
Whosoever has a daughter and he does not bury her alive,
does not insult her, and does not favor his son over
her, God will enter him into Paradise. (Ibn Hanbal,
Whosoever supports two daughters till they mature,
he and I will come in the day of judgment as this (and
he pointed with his two fingers held together).
A similar Hadeeth deals in like manner with one who
supports two sisters. (Ibn-Hanbal, No. 2104).
The right of females to seek knowledge is not different
from that of males. Prophet Muhammad (P.) said:
"Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every Muslim".
(AlBayhaqi). Muslim as used here including both males
b) As a wife:
The Qur'an clearly indicates that marriage is sharing
between the two halves of the society, and that its
objectives, beside perpetuating human life, are emotional
well-being and spiritual harmony. Its bases are love
Among the most impressive verses in the Qur'an about
marriage is the following.
"And among His signs is this: That He created
mates for you from yourselves that you may find rest,
peace of mind in them, and He ordained between you love
and mercy. Lo, herein indeed are signs for people who
reflect." (Qur'an 30:2 1).
According to Islamic Law, women cannot be forced to
marry anyone without their consent.
Ibn Abbas reported that a girl came to the Messenger
of God, Muhammad (P.), and she reported that her father
had forced her to marry without her consent. The Messenger
of God gave her the choice . . . (between accepting
the marriage or invalidating it). (Ibn Hanbal No. 2469).
In another version, the girl said: "Actually I
accept this marriage but I wanted to let women know
that parents have no right (to force a husband on them)"
(Ibn Maja, No. 1873).
Besides all other provisions for her protection at
the time of marriage, it was specifically decreed that
woman has the full right to her Mahr, a marriage gift,
which is presented to her by her husband and is included
in the nuptial contract, and that such ownership does
not transfer to her father or husband. The concept of
Mahr in Islam is neither an actual or symbolic price
for the woman, as was the case in certain cultures,
but rather it is a gift symbolizing love and affection.
The rules for married life in Islam are clear and in
harmony with upright human nature. In consideration
of the physiological and psychological make-up of man
and woman, both have equal rights and claims on one
another, except for one responsibility, that of leadership.
This is a matter which is natural in any collective
life and which is consistent with the nature of man.
The Qur'an thus states:
"And they (women) have rights similar to those
(of men) over them, and men are a degree above them."
Such degree is Quiwama (maintenance and protection).
This refers to that natural difference between the sexes
which entitles the weaker sex to protection. It implies
no superiority or advantage before the law. Yet, man's
role of leadership in relation to his family does not
mean the husband's dictatorship over his wife. Islam
emphasizes the importance of taking counsel and mutual
agreement in family decisions. The Qur'an gives us an
"...If they (husband wife) desire to wean the
child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, there
is no blame on them..." (Qur'an 2: 233).
Over and above her basic rights as a wife comes the
right which is emphasized by the Qur'an and is strongly
recommended by the Prophet (P); kind treatment and companionship.
The Qur'an states:
"...But consort with them in kindness, for if
you hate them it may happen that you hate a thing wherein
God has placed much good." (Qur'an 4: l9).
Prophet Muhammad. (P) said:
The best of you is the best to his family and I am
the best among you to my family.
The most perfect believers are the best in conduct
and best of you are those who are best to their wives.
(Ibn-Hanbal, No. 7396)
Behold, many women came to Muhammad's wives complaining
against their husbands (because they beat them) - -
those (husbands) are not the best of you.
As the woman's right to decide about her marriage is
recognized, so also her right to seek an end for an
unsuccessful marriage is recognized. To provide for
the stability of the family, however, and in order to
protect it from hasty decisions under temporary emotional
stress, certain steps and waiting periods should be
observed by men and women seeking divorce. Considering
the relatively more emotional nature of women, a good
reason for asking for divorce should be brought before
the judge. Like the man, however, the woman can divorce
her husband with out resorting to the court, if the
nuptial contract allows that.
More specifically, some aspects of Islamic Law concerning
marriage and divorce are interesting and are worthy
of separate treatment.
When the continuation of the marriage relationship
is impossible for any reason, men are still taught to
seek a gracious end for it.
The Qur'an states about such cases:
When you divorce women, and they reach their prescribed
term, then retain them in kindness and retain them not
for injury so that you transgress (the limits). (Qur'an
2:231). (See also Qur'an 2:229 and 33:49).
c) As a mother:
Islam considered kindness to parents next to the worship
"And we have enjoined upon man (to be good) to
his parents: His mother bears him in weakness upon weakness..."
(Qur'an 31:14) (See also Qur'an 46:15, 29:8).
Moreover, the Qur'an has a special recommendation for
the good treatment of mothers:
"Your Lord has decreed that you worship none save
Him, and that you be kind to your parents. . ."
A man came to Prophet Muhammad (P) asking:
O Messenger of God, who among the people is the most
worthy of my good company? The Prophet (P) said, Your
mother. The man said then who else: The Prophet (P)
said, Your mother. The man asked, Then who else? Only
then did the Prophet (P) say, Your father. (Al-Bukhari
A famous saying of The Prophet is "Paradise is
at the feet of mothers." (In Al'Nisa'I, Ibn Majah,
"It is the generous (in character) who is good
to women, and it is the wicked who insults them."
3. The Economic Aspect
Islam decreed a right of which woman was deprived both
before Islam and after it (even as late as this century),
the right of independent ownership. According to Islamic
Law, woman's right to her money, real estate, or other
properties is fully acknowledged. This right undergoes
no change whether she is single or married. She retains
her full rights to buy, sell, mortgage or lease any
or all her properties. It is nowhere suggested in the
Law that a woman is a minor simply because she is a
female. It is also noteworthy that such right applies
to her properties before marriage as well as to whatever
she acquires thereafter.
With regard to the woman's right to seek employment
it should be stated first that Islam regards her role
in society as a mother and a wife as the most sacred
and essential one. Neither maids nor baby-sitters can
possibly take the mother's place as the educator of
an upright, complex free, and carefully-reared children.
Such a noble and vital role, which largely shapes the
future of nations, cannot be regarded as "idleness".
However, there is no decree in Islam which forbids
woman from seeking employment whenever there is a necessity
for it, especially in positions which fit her nature
and in which society needs her most. Examples of these
professions are nursing, teaching (especially for children),
and medicine. Moreover, there is no restriction on benefiting
from woman's exceptional talent in any field. Even for
the position of a judge, where there may be a tendency
to doubt the woman's fitness for the post due to her
more emotional nature, we find early Muslim scholars
such as Abu-Hanifa and Al-Tabary holding there is nothing
wrong with it. In addition, Islam restored to woman
the right of inheritance, after she herself was an object
of inheritance in some cultures. Her share is completely
hers and no one can make any claim on it, including
her father and her husband.
"Unto men (of the family) belongs a share of that
which Parents and near kindred leave, and unto women
a share of that which parents and near kindred leave,
whether it be a little or much - a determinate share."
Her share in most cases is one-half the man's share,
with no implication that she is worth half a man! It
would seem grossly inconsistent after the overwhelming
evidence of woman's equitable treatment in Islam, which
was discussed in the preceding pages, to make such an
inference. This variation in inheritance rights is only
consistent with the variations in financial responsibilities
of man and woman according to the Islamic Law. Man in
Islam is fully responsible for the maintenance of his
wife, his children, and in some cases of his needy relatives,
especially the females. This responsibility is neither
waived nor reduced because of his wife's wealth or because
of her access to any personal income gained from work,
rent, profit, or any other legal means.
Woman, on the other hand, is far more secure financially
and is far less burdened with any claims on her possessions.
Her possessions before marriage do not transfer to her
husband and she even keeps her maiden name. She has
no obligation to spend on her family out of such properties
or out of her income after marriage. She is entitled
to the "Mahr" which she takes from her husband
at the time of marriage. If she is divorced, she may
get an alimony from her ex-husband.
An examination of the inheritance law within the overall
framework of the Islamic Law reveals not only justice
but also an abundance of compassion for woman.
4. The Political Aspect
Any fair investigation of the teachings of Islam o~
into the history of the Islamic civilization will surely
find a clear evidence of woman's equality with man in
what we call today "political rights".
This includes the right of election as well as the
nomination to political offices. It also includes woman's
right to participate in public affairs. Both in the
Qur'an and in Islamic history we find examples of women
who participated in serious discussions and argued even
with the Prophet (P) himself, (see Qur'an 58: 14 and
During the Caliphate of Omar Ibn al-Khattab, a woman
argued with him in the mosque, proved her point, and
caused him to declare in the presence of people: "A
woman is right and Omar is wrong."
Although not mentioned in the Qur'an, one Hadeeth of
the Prophet is interpreted to make woman ineligible
for the position of head of state. The Hadeeth referred
to is roughly translated: "A people will not prosper
if they let a woman be their leader." This limitation,
however, has nothing to do with the dignity of woman
or with her rights. It is rather, related to the natural
differences in the biological and psychological make-up
of men and women.
According to Islam, the head of the state is no mere
figurehead. He leads people in the prayers, especially
on Fridays and festivities; he is continuously engaged
in the process of decision-making pertaining to the
security and well-being of his people. This demanding
position, or any similar one, such as the Commander
of the Army, is generally inconsistent with the physiological
and psychological make-up of woman in general. It is
a medical fact that during their monthly periods and
during their pregnancies, women undergo various physiological
and psychological changes. Such changes may occur during
an emergency situation, thus affecting her decision,
without considering the excessive strain which is produced.
Moreover, some decisions require a maximum of rationality
and a minimum of emotionality - a requirement which
does not coincide with the instinctive nature of women.
Even in modern times, and in the most developed countries,
it is rare to find a woman in the position of a head
of state acting as more than a figurehead, a woman commander
of the armed services, or even a proportionate number
of women representatives in parliaments, or similar
bodies. One can not possibly ascribe this to backwardness
of various nations or to any constitutional limitation
on woman's right to be in such a position as a head
of state or as a member of the parliament. It is more
logical to explain the present situation in terms of
the natural and indisputable differences between man
and woman, a difference which does not imply any "supremacy"
of one over the other. The difference implies rather
the "complementary" roles of both the sexes
The first part of this paper deals briefly with the
position of various religions and cultures on the issue
under investigation. Part of this exposition extends
to cover the general trend as late as the nineteenth
century, nearly 1300 years after the Qur'an set forth
the Islamic teachings.
In the second part of the paper, the status of women
in Islam is briefly discussed. Emphasis in this part
is placed on the original and authentic sources of Islam.
This represents the standard according to which degree
of adherence of Muslims can be judged. It is also a
fact that during the downward cycle of Islamic Civilization,
such teachings were not strictly adhered to by many
people who profess to be Muslims.
Such deviations were unfairly exaggerated by some writers,
and the worst of this, were superficially taken to represent
the teachings of "Islam" to the Western reader
without taking the trouble to make any original and
unbiased study of the authentic sources of these teachings.
Even with such deviations three facts are worth mentioning:
1. The history of Muslims is rich with women of great
achievements in all walks of life from as early as the
seventh century (B.C.)
2. It is impossible for anyone to justify any mistreatment
of woman by any decree of rule embodied in the Islamic
Law, nor could anyone dare to cancel, reduce, or distort
the clear-cut legal rights of women given in Islamic
3. Throughout history, the reputation, chastity and
maternal role of Muslim women were objects of admiration
by impartial observers.
It is also worthwhile to state that the status which
women reached during the present era was not achieved
due to the kindness of men or due to natural progress.
It was rather achieved through a long struggle and sacrifice
on woman's part and only when society needed her contribution
and work, more especial!; during the two world wars,
and due to the escalation of technological change.
In the case of Islam such compassionate and dignified
status was decreed, not because it reflects the environment
of the seventh century, nor under the threat or pressure
of women and their organizations, but rather because
of its intrinsic truthfulness.
If this indicates anything, it would demonstrate the
divine origin of the Qur'an and the truthfulness of
the message of Islam, which, unlike human philosophies
and ideologies, was far from proceeding from its human
environment, a message which established such humane
principles as neither grew obsolete during the course
of time and after these many centuries, nor can become
obsolete in the future. After all, this is the message
of the All-Wise and all-knowing God whose wisdom and
knowledge are far beyond the ultimate in human thought
The Holy, Qur'an: Translation of verses is heavily based
on A. Yusuf Ali's translation, The Glorious Qur'an,
text translation, and Commentary, The American Trust
Publication, Plainfield, IN 46168, 1979.
Abd Al-Ati, Hammudah, Islam in Focus, The American
Trust Publications, Plainfield, IN 46168, 1977.
Allen, E. A., History of Civilization, General Publishing
House, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1889, Vol. 3.
Al Siba'i, Mustafa, Al-Alar'ah Baynal Fiqh Walqanoon
(in Arabic), 2nd. ea., Al-Maktabah Al-Arabiah, Halab,
El-Khouli, Al-Bahiy, "Min Usus Kadiat Al-Mara'ah"
(in Arabic), A 1- Waay A l-lslami, Ministry of Walcf,
Kuwait, Vol.3 (No. 27), June 9, 1967, p.17.
Encyclopedia Americana (International Edition), American
Corp., N.Y., 1969, Vol.29.
Encyclopedia Biblica (Rev.T.K.Cheynene and J.S.Black,
editors), The Macmillan Co., London, England, 1902,
The Encyclopedia Britannica, (11 th ed.), University
Press Cambridge, England, 191 1, Vol.28.
Encyclopedia Britannica, The Encyclopedia Britannica,
Inc., Chicago, III., 1968, Vol.23.
Hadeeth. Most of the quoted Hadeeth were translated
by the writer. They are quoted in various Arabic sources.
Some of them, however, were translated directly from
the original sources. Among the sources checked are
Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Dar AlMa'aref, Cairo, U.A.R.,
1950, and 1955, Vol.4 and 3,SunanIbnMajah, Dar Ihya'a
Al-Kutub al-Arabiah, Cairo, U.A.R., 1952, Vol.l, Sunan
Mace, David and Vera, Marriage: East and West, Dolphin
Books, Doubleday and Co., Inc., N.Y., 1960.