Belief in Al-Qadar
Al-Qadar is Allah's predestination of measurements
and sustenance of everything and everyone, according
to His Knowledge and Wisdom.
Aspects Of Belief In Al-Qadar
1 - The belief that Allah's Knowledge encompasses everything,
every matter, major or minor, and time-frames of everything
that happens in this universe. Allah's Knowledge encompasses
all of His Actions and actions taken by His slaves.
2 - The belief that Allah recorded everything in a
Book that He kept with Him, called "Al-Lawh' Al-Mah'footh"
(The Kept Book). He said, what translated means, (Know
you not that Allah knows all that is in heaven and on
earth? Verily, it is (all) in the Book (Al-Lawh' Al-Mah'footh).
Verily, that is easy for Allah.) [22:70].
Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-'Aas said that he heard the
Messenger of Allah say, what translated means, "Allah
recorded the measurement of all matters pertaining to
creation fifty thousand years before He created the
heavens and earth." [Muslim].
3 - The belief that nothing, whether related to Allah's
Actions or actions taken by His slaves, can happen without
His permission. He said, what translated means, (And
your Lord creates whatsoever He wills and chooses.)
[28:68], (And Allah does what He will.) [14:27] and,
(He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases.)
[3:6]. As for actions taken by His creation, Allah said,
(Had Allah willed, indeed He would have given them power
over you, and they would have fought you.) [4:90] and,
(And if Allah had willed, they would not have done so.
So leave them alone with their fabrications.) [6:137].
4 - The belief that Allah created all creation, all
what they possess of attributes and all their actions,
(Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Guardian
over all things.) [39:62] and, (He has created everything,
and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.)
[25:2]. Also, Abraham said to his people, as was mentioned
in the Quran, ("While Allah has created you and
what you make.") [37:96].
Believing in Al-Qadar, as described above, does not
mean that people have no power over the actions they
choose to take. Islamic Shari'ah and reality confirm
that the person has a will of his own:
As for the Shari'ah, Allah said about one's own will,
what translated means, (So, whosoever wills, let him
take a Return to his Lord (by obeying His Commandments).)
[78:39] and, (So go to your tilth (have sexual relations
with you wives) when and how you will (not in the anus).)
[2:223]. As for one's own power over his actions, (So
keep your duty to Allah as much as you can; listen and
obey.) [64:16] and, (Allah burdens not a person beyond
his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has
earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he
has earned.) [2:286].
As for the reality of things, every human knows that
he has a power and a will of his own. He uses his power
and will to indulge in or avoid actions of his choice.
Mankind distinguish between what they do by their own
power and between what they have no power over, like
shivering due to illness or extreme cool. However, the
power and will of mankind is under the control of Allah's
Will and Power, (To whomsoever among you who wills to
walk straight. And you will not, unless (it be) that
Allah wills, the Lord of the worlds.) [81:28-29]. The
universe is Allah's property and nothing happens in
His Kingdom without His Knowledge and Permission.
Belief in Al-Qadar, as explained above, does not provide
an excuse for mankind to sin or abandon what they are
obligated to do. This excuse can be rejected using the
1 - Allah said, what translated means, (Those who took
partners (in worship) with Allah will say: "If
Allah had willed, we would not have taken partners (in
worship) with Him, nor would our fathers, and we would
not have forbidden anything (against His Will)."
Likewise bellied those who were before them, till they
tasted of Our Wrath. Say: "Have you any knowledge
(proof) that you can produce before us? Verily, you
follow nothing but guess and you do nothing but lie.")
[6:148]. The disbelievers did not have a valid excuse
when they said that what they did was according to Al-Qadar.
If this excuse was valid, then why will Allah punish
them for their sins?
2 - Allah said, what translated means, (Messengers
as bearers of good news as well as of warning in order
that mankind should have no plea against Allah after
the Messengers. And Allah is Ever All-Powerful, All-Wise.)
[4:165]. Sending down the Messengers took place according
to Al-Qadar, also. This is why the disbelievers cannot
use Al- Qadar as an excuse for not believing, because
Al-Qadar provided them with the means to escape Allah's
punishment by following His Messengers.
3 - Ali ibn Abi Talib said that the Prophet said, what
translated means, "One's final destination, in
Hell or Paradise, is already determined for each one
of you." A man said, "Should we depend (on
this fact), O Messenger of Allah (meaning to abandon
working deeds)?" He said, "No. Perform deeds,
because everyone will be helped (to go on the path that
he chooses and reach his destiny)." Then he read
the Ayah, (As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps
his duty to Allah and fears Him...) [92:5]." [Al-Bukhari
& Muslim (the wordings are by Al-Bukhari)]. Muslim's
narration of this Hadith reads, "All will be helped
to satisfy what they were created for." The Prophet
ordered the companions to perform righteous, good deeds
and not to depend on Al-Qadar.
4 - Allah conveyed His Commandments to His slaves and
did not require them to do what is beyond their capacity,
(So keep your duty to Allah (and fear Him) as much
as you can.) [64:16], and (Allah burdens not a person
beyond his scope.) [2:286]. If the slave is forced to
do whatever deeds he performs, then Allah would have
required from him what is beyond his capacity, and this
is a false belief. For this reason, Allah forgives sins
that take place because of ignorance or forgetfulness.
5 - Al-Qadar is a matter of Allah's Knowledge. No one
can uncover his own Qadar but after it happens. One's
intention to perform a deed precedes the action itself.
He does not know what Al-Qadar holds for him. Therefore,
Al-Qadar is not a valid excuse for sinning and abandoning
6 - One always seeks what is convenient for him. No
one of sane mind would abandon what brings material
benefit to him, saying that Al-Qadar forced him to take
this course of action. Therefore, why would one use
Al-Qadar as an excuse for abandoning what brings benefit
to him in matters of religion and not do the same for
matters of life?
If a man has to choose between two countries to move
to, one of them is chaotic, full of incidents of murder,
looting, rape, insecurity and hunger. Would he choose
to go to this country or would he go to another country
which is safe for him and secure, with abundance in
material joys, where one's honor, possessions and human
rights are preserved? There is no doubt that this man
would choose the second country, where he will be safe
and secure. No one of sane mind would choose to go to
the first country, claiming that this is his Qadar.
Therefore, why would one choose what ends him up in
Hell, rather than Paradise, in the Last Life, claiming
that this is his Qadar?
When one is sick and is given a medicine to take, he
will take the medicine even though he does not like
its taste. When one is told to go on a diet, he would
not eat the food that he likes, in order to satisfy
this diet and to stay fit. No one of sane mind would
refuse to take medicines or go on medical diets, claiming
that this is his Qadar. Therefore, why would one abandon
implementing Allah's and His Messenger's Commandments,
thus bringing Allah's Wrath on him, claiming that this
is his Qadar?
7 - If one of those, who abandon the Commandments and
indulge in sinning, comes under attack on his honor
or possessions, would he accept the excuse of the attacker,
if he says that he attacked him because it was his Qadar
to attack him, and therefore he is not to be blamed?
No, indeed. Therefore, why does this person refuse Al-Qadar
as an excuse for whoever attacked him, while he depends
on Al-Qadar as an excuse for abandoning Allah's rights
It was reported that Omar ibn Al-Khattab was brought
a man who was caught stealing. Omar ordered that this
man's hand be cut off. The man said, "Wait, O leader
of the believers. I only stole because this was in the
Qadar of Allah." Omar said, "And we are cutting
your hand because it is in the Qadar of Allah."
Benefits Of Belief In Al-Qadar
1 - Depending on Allah alone when one indulges in any
action. Taking the necessary precautions is not the
cause of one's success in the intended actions. All
matters are under the full control of the Qadar of Allah.
2 - When one succeeds in performing an action, he must
not be proud of himself. All good deeds are successfully
performed because of Allah's bounty, because He ordained
that this matter be successful. To be proud will make
one forget to thank Allah for permitting him to successfully
perform this deed.
3 - Believing in Al-Qadar leads one to feel satisfied,
safe and secure. All incidents that happen to a person
are a result of Allah's Qadar. One should not feel miserable
for losing or not gaining what he likes. All this happens
according to the Qadar of Allah. Allah is the King and
Lord of the heavens and earth and His Qadar will happen
exactly as He Wills, (No calamity befalls on the earth
or in yourselves but is inscribed in the Book of Decrees
(Al-Lawh' Al-Mah'footh), before We bring it into existence.
Verily, that is easy for Allah. In order that you may
not be sad over matters that you fail to get, nor rejoice
because of that which has been given to you. And Allah
likes not prideful boasters.) [57:22-23]. The Prophet
said, what translated means, "Pleasing is the attitude
of the believer. All of his matters are righteous. This
is only for the believer. If a joy is brought to him,
he thanks (Allah for it). This is better for him. If
a calamity befalls him, he is patient. This is also
good for him." [Muslim].
Two groups fell into misguidance with regards to
1 - Al-Jabriyyah: This group claimed that the person
is forced to do whatever he does and that he has no
power or will of his own.
2 - Al-Qadariyyah: They claimed that the person has
a will and power independent of Allah's Will and Power.
The Shari'ah and real life are used to refute the first
As for the Shari'ah, Allah confirmed that humans have
a will and power of their own, (Among you are some that
desire this world and some that desire the Hereafter.)
[3:152], (And say: "The Truth is from your Lord."
Then whosoever wills, let him believe, and whosoever
wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have prepared
for the unjust, a Fire whose walls will be surrounding
them.) [18:29] and, (Whosoever does righteous, good
deeds, it is for (the benefit of) his ownself, and whosoever
does evil, it is against his ownself, and your Lord
is not at all unjust to (His) slaves.) [41:46].
As for real life, everyone knows the difference between
his actions, like eating, drinking, selling and buying,
and between what is beyond his power, like shivering
and accidentally falling off a roof, for example. The
first type of actions are his. He chooses them on his
own will using his own power. The second type of actions
are beyond his control.
The Shari'ah and the mind are also used to refute the
second group, Al-Qadariyyah.
Allah created everything and nothing happens without
His permission. He said that all actions taken by His
slave happen by His Will, (If Allah had willed, succeeding
generations would not have fought against each other,
after clear Versus of Allah had come to them, but they
differed, some of them believed and others disbelieved.
If Allah had willed, they would not have fought against
one another, but Allah does what He likes.) [2:253]
and, (And if We had willed, surely! We would have given
every person his guidance, but the Word from Me took
effect (about evil-doers), that I will fill Hell with
Jinn and mankind together.) [32:13].
As for the mind, the universe is Allah's Kingdom and
mankind are a part of this Kingdom. Therefore, all mankind
are owned by Allah. The slave cannot do anything in
this Kingdom unless its Lord, Allah, gives him permission.