(Belief In Allah) (1)

Bismillahir rahmanir Raheem

Tawheed is traditionally divided into three major categories. We
offer here a brief explanation of them for the purpose of
clarification. We will attempt to use clear expression as much as
possible although the use of certain "technical" terms is
unavoidable. Each category, will be brought forth in three
installments, in shaa Allah.

The division of tawheed into several components was not done by the
Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) or his noble companions,
radiallahu 'anhum. There was no necessity to analyze such a basic
principle in that manner at that time. That is, the Prophet
(sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) and his companions (radiallahu 'anhum)
did not sit in circles of learning and begin teaching tawheed by
saying, "Category one of tawheed is such and such..." Nonetheless,
each of the foundations and components of the categories of tawheed
are clearly based in the Qur'aan and the authentic statements of the
Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) as will become clear in the
coming explanations of each category.

Tawheed Ar-Ruboobiyyah (The Unity of Lordship)

This is the fundamental understanding that Allah is Ar-Rabb
(pronounced like Are-rob and commonly translated as the Lord). That
is, He is the maintainer and sustainer of all things without Whom
nothing would exist. The word Rabb in itself refers to a relationship
of dominance and control. He created and sustains all of the
creation, without any need of it nor does He need any assistance to
maintain or provide for His creatures. Nothing occurs unless He
allows it to occur, and it is He who gives any power at all to His

Allah states:

"Allah created all things and He is the Wakeel (Trustee, Disposer of
affairs, Guardian)" [Al-Qur'aan 2: 62]

And Allah created you all and whatever you do. [Al-Qur'aan 37: 96]

It was not you who threw when you threw, but it was Allah Who threw.
[Al-Qur'aan 8: 17]

And no calamity strikes except by Allah's permission. [Al-Qur'aan

The Prophet Muhammad (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) stated:

"Be aware that if the whole of mankind gathered together in order to
do something to help you, they would not be able to do anything for
you unless Allah had already written it for you. Likewise, if the
whole of humanity gathered to harm you they would only be able to
harm you if Allah had already written that for you." [Reported by Ibn
Abbaas and collected by At-Tirmidhee]

His is verily all creation and commandment, blessed is Allah the Lord
of all the worlds. [Soorah Al-'Araaf Aayah 54]

The belief in predestination, or Qadr, is incorporated in this aspect
of tawheed. Qadr is the belief that everything that happens is from
the knowledge, will, and power of Allah. It also incorporates the
belief that Allah Alone has the right to legislate and judge (Al-
Haakimiyyah). Ar-Ruboobiyyah is found in virtually every chapter of
the Qur'aan and is a type of foundation for all other aspects of
tawheed. Because of His status as Ar-Rabb, He alone merits worship,
reverence, submission, praise, remembrance, supplication, hope and
fear. He alone possesses the power to create and command and He is
the Creator, Master and Controller who must necessarily possess the
perfect qualities and attributes (which we will later discuss in
detail) in order to be Ar-Rabb.

The Qur'aan mentions Ar-Ruboobiyyah in the context of praising,
worshipping, surrendering, submitting and supplicating to Allah. Even
the polytheists of old and most people today recognize this aspect of
tawheed although they may have denied the others or have an incorrect
understanding of each.

If you ask them (i.e. the disbelievers) 'Who created the heavens and
the earth?' they will surely say 'Allah'. [Soorah Az-Zukhruf 87]

Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah or Tawheed Al-'Ibaadah (The Unity of Deity
(Godhood) or Worship)

This means to single out Allah as the object of all worship
('ibaadah – pronounced ee-bad-ah) such that a person does not take
anything or anyone else besides Allah as an object of worship nor do
acts of devotion as he does for Allah. Neither prayer, fasting,
pilgrimage, total obedience, complete trust, absolute love or hope is
to be given to other than Allah because He alone is the true deity

As we previously mentioned, the pagan polytheists in the time of the
Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) believed that Allah was their
Rabb, yet that alone did not make them Muslims. They used to devote
various types of worship to Him and even claimed to be followers of
the religion of Ibrahim ('alaihi salaam). Some even believed in the
Resurrection and a Final Judgement and others in divine decree (Al-
Qadr). Despite all this they were still classified by Allah in the
Qur'aan as disbelievers (kuffaar) and polytheists (mushrikoon)
because of their disbelief in this most important of the categories
of Tawheed. They joined other gods with Allah and did not accept the
unity of Allah.

The unity of worship - that is, that worship is to and for Allah
Alone - must be maintained because He alone deserves to be worshipped
and He alone can benefit man as a result. No intercessor or
intermediary such as a priest or holy man is needed between any
person and Allah. The importance of directing all forms of worship to
Allah Alone is emphasized time and again in the Qur'aan. It is the
purpose and goal of creation and the message that was the central to
the mission of all the Prophets (anbiyaa') and messengers (rusul) of

Allah states:
I did not create the Jinn nor Mankind except for My worship. [Soorah
Adh-Dhaariyaat 56]

Verily We have sent to every nation a messenger (saying), 'Worship
Allah and stay away from false gods'. [Soorah An-Nahl 36]

You alone do we worship and from You alone do we seek help. [Soorah

The Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:

If you ask in prayer, ask only Allah, and if you seek help, seek it
only from Allah. [Reported by Ibn Abbaas and collected by At-

The confirmation and belief in Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah necessitates the
denial of all forms of intercession or association of partners with
Allah such as praying or making any supplication to a dead or living
person, or to an inanimate object for any reason. The Prophet
(sallallahu 'alaihi wa sallam) said, Duaa (prayer or supplication) is

Asking a righteous living person to supplicate on one's behalf is
permitted because one is not asking them to grant the blessing, favor
or help but rather asking them to ask Allah on one's behalf. As for
the dead, they are unable to hear, nor are they able to help
themselves! And those whom you invoke or call upon instead of Him,
own not even the thin membrane over the date-stone.

If you invoke or call upon them, they hear not your call and if in
case they were to hear you they could not grant your request and on
the Day of Resurrection they will disown your worshipping them.
[Soorah Al-Fatir 13-14]

Verily you cannot make the dead to hear, nor can you make the deaf to
hear the call when they flee turning their backs. Nor can you lead
the blind out of their error. You can only make to hear those who
believe in Our Ayaat and who have submitted themselves as Muslims.
[Soorah An-Naml Aayah 80 - 81]

The Qur'aan mentions the excuse of those who would rationalize their
worship of idols. They said, "We only worship them so that they may
bring us closer to Allah." [Soorah Az-Zumar 3]

Their idols were used only as intermediaries yet Allah nonetheless
condemned them for their practices. Many Christians direct their
prayer to Jesus or his mother. The Catholics have numerous saints to
whom they direct their prayers for various occasions. Catholics use
priests as intercessors.

Some deviated Muslim sects devote certain hours of the day for prayer
to members of the family of the Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa
sallam). Many visit the grave of the Prophet (sallallahu 'alaihi wa
sallam) in hopes that he would answer their prayers and he
specifically condemned this practice so much so that it was among his
last words...Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol. [Muwatta Imam

The curse of Allah falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have
made their prophets' tombs places of worship. [Al-Bukhaari and
Muwatta Imam Malik].

A significant part of belief in Tawheed Al-Uloohiyyah involves
implementation of Sharee'ah (Islamic Law) because to do so is
recognition of Allah as the ultimate Lawgiver who is to be obeyed

To do otherwise is an act of disbelief in divine law and an
expression of belief in the correctness of systems other than Allah's
system. In this point we can clearly recognize the relationship with
Ar-Ruboobiyyah and Allah's right to judge, legislate and be obeyed.

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