Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said: "The heart of the person who remains awake (in Ibadat) during the night of Eidul Fitr and Eidul Adhaa will not die on the Day when hearts will be dead, i.e. the Day of Qiyaamah." (TIBRANI)
The nights of both Eids, i.e. the nights preceding the Days of Eid, are auspicious occasions which should be observed with reverence and worship. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) said that these nights are great occasions of Ibadat and of gaining the proximity and special Mercy of Allah Ta'ala. These holy nights, should therefore not be allowed to pass by in idleness. Full advantage should be taken of these opportunities by offering obedience and Ibadat unto Allah Ta'ala to the best of our abilities. Istighfaar (seeking forgiveness for sins), Tilaawat (reciting the Quran), Nafl Salaat, Durood, etc. should be profusely offered on these holy nights.
Among the rewards which will be obtained as a result of observing the sanctity of these glorious Eid Nights, the greatest reward is the tiding conveyed to us by Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Álayhi Wasallam) in the abovementioned Hadith, viz., the heart will not be smitten with terror and fear on the Day of (Qiyamah when the upheavals of that Day will be so fearsome that men will appear to be intoxicated.
SUNNATS OF EID
To rise as early as possible (in fact much of this night should be spent in Ibaadat).
To make Ghusl.
To use the Miswaak.
To apply Itr (Halaal, non-alcoholic perfume).
To wear one's best clothes, ensuring that it conforms with Shariáh (sunnah dress).
To eat something sweet (such as dates) before departing for Eid Salaat.
To got to the 'Eid Gah' as early as possible.
To give 'Sadaqatul Fitr' before leaving for the Eid Gah.
To perform Eid Salaat on the 'Eid Gah' rather than the Masjid. There is no harm for aged and the sick to perform their Eid Salaat in the Masjid. Rain is also an excuse for performing Eid Salaat in the Masjid.
To choose a separate route when returning from the Eid Gah.
To walk to the Eid Gah. However, there is no harm in using any means of conveyance if the Eid Gah is a distance away.
To recite the Takbeer while walking to the Eid Gah.
SOME RULES REGARDING EID SALAAT
A person who joins the Eid Salaat after the Imam has already recited the Eid Takbeers should recite the Takbeers immediately upon entering the Salaat. However, If he enters the Salaat when the Imam is about to go into Ruku and he (the latecomer) fears that he will not he able to join the Imaam in the Ruku if he stands and recites the Takbeers, then he should instead recite the Takbeers in the Ruku, and forgo the Tasbeeh of the Ruku. But, while reciting the Takbeers in the Ruku hands should not be raised as is done when reciting the Takbeer when in Qiyaam (the standing posture of Salaat).
If the Imaam emerges from the Ruku and the latecomer has not yet completed the recitation of his Takbeers which he had missed then he should leave off the balance of the Takbeers and join the Imam in emerging from the Ruku. In this case the balance of the Takbeers which he could not complete are waived (Maaf).
If someone missed a Rakaat of the Eid Salaat he should fulfil it as follows:
After the Imam terminates the Salaat with the Salaams he (the one who missed the Rakaat) should rise and perform one Rakaat on his own, reciting Qiraat, the Takbeers should be recited. The rest of the Rakaat is then completed as usual.
EID SALAAT FORMULA
The Eid Salaat (Eid-ul-Fitr) is performed on the 1st day of Shawaal. It consists of two Rakaats and two Khutbas, and is very much like the Jummu'ah Salaat with a few variations. During Juma Salaat the Khutba precedes the two Rakaats and on Eid day it is in reverse. First comes the two Rakaats of prayer and then the two Khutbas. On the best authority of the Hanafi Imams (R.A.), there are six additional Takbeers (Allah-u-Akbar) for the Eid Salaats. 3 Takbeers in the first Rakaat and 3 Takbeers in the second Rakaat.
After everybody has made 'Niyyat' the Imam recites the 'Takbeer-E-Tahreema', (Allah-u-Akbar) and starts the Eid Salaat. Everybody raise their hands to their earlobes and folds them under their navel. Then the imam recites three Takbeers one after the other with brief intervals. (Allah-u-Akbar). We raise our hands and drop them to our sides after the 1st and 2nd Takbeers and after the 3rd Takbeer we place our hands below our navel. The Imam then recites the Surah Fatiha and follows it with any passage from the Quraan. We then proceed into Rukoo and Sijdahs and return for the second Rakaat.
The Imam recites the Surah Fatiha and a passage from the Quraan and is now ready for the Rukoo. At this stage just before going into the Rukoo, he recites the remaining 3 Takbeers with brief intervals. We drop our hands each time to our sides. When the Imam recites the 4th Takbeer, we go into Rukoo and then into Sijda. After the Thashahhud and Salaam, remain seated and wait for the Imaam to deliver the Khutbahs.
THE KHUTBAH FORMULA
After the two Rakaats, the Imam rises to deliver his Khutba. It is Sunnah for the Imam to start his first Khutba with 9 Takbeers and the second with 7 Takbeers. He reminds the Muslims of their duties towards Allah, towards themselves and their fellow - men. Eid is a day of happiness and joy. This cannot be fully appreciated if animosity, hatred, old grudges and bygones are left to remain in our hearts.
TAKBEER IN THE EIDS
Allah, the Most High, says:
"(He wants you) to complete the same number (of days) and that must magnify Allah (takbeer) for having guided you and so that you may be grateful to Him." (Al-Baqarah 2:185)
Indeed it is established that the Prophet (SAW) used to emerge on the day of 'Eid-ul-Fitr and say the takbeer up until he reached the musallaa (place of prayer) and up until he had performed the prayer. So when he had performed the prayer he stopped saying the takbeer. (Reported by Ibn Abee Shaibah in Musannaf and Mahaamlee in Kitaab Salaatul 'Eidain with an authentic chain of narration but it is mursal. Nevertheless it has (some supporting narration's that strengthen it. Refer to Silsilatul Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah)
The scholar of hadeeth al-Albaanee (ra) said:
"This hadeeth contains evidence concerning the legality of what the Muslims are acting upon, from saying the takbeer aloud on the way to the musallaa; even though many Muslims have become negligent of this Sunnah to such an extent that it has nearly become a 'thing that was'...
From that which is appropriate to remind us of at this point, is that saying the takbeer aloud does not mean that it is permitted to say it in unison, as some people do. Likewise, all other supplications in which raising the voice has or has not been prescribed, then reciting the supplication in unison is not permissible. So be cautious of this and let us always focus our eyes upon the fact that the best guidance is the guidance of the Prophet (SAW)." (Silsilatul Ahaadeeth as-Saheehah)
Shaikh-ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah was asked about the time when the takbeer should be recited during the 'Eids. So he replied:
"All praise be to Allah. The most correct opinion with regard to reciting the takbeer is that which the majority of the pious predecessors, the jurists from amongst the Companions and its A'immah are upon, - that is to say the takbeer after every prayer from Fajr (Dawn) on the day of 'Arafah until the last day of Tashreeq. It is permitted for everyone to say the takbeer aloud when proceeding to the 'Eid prayer and this is agreed upon by the four Imaams." (Majmoo al-Fataawaa and refer to Subul-as-Salaam)
I (the author) say:
His (ra) saying: After every prayer - in particular - is a matter for which there is no evidence. Rather the correct opinion is that it is at all times without particularization.
This is inferred upon by saying of Al-Bukhari in the chapter on the two 'Eids in his book as-Saheeh: "Chapter: Takbeer in the days of Mina and when proceeding to Arafah."
'Umar (RA) used to make takbeer in his tent in Mina such that the people in the masjid (mosque) could hear him and so they would make takbeer and the people in the market would make takbeer such that Mina would resound with the takbeer.
Ibn Umar (RA) used to make takbeer in Mina on these days, after every prayer, while reclining on his couch in his tent, in his gatherings and when walking, all in these days.
Maimoonah (RA) would make takbeer on the day of Nahr. The women used to make takbeer alongside with Abaan Ibn Uthmaan and ' Amer Ibn Abdul-Aziz (RU) during the nights of Tasreeq with the men in the masjid.
When Ibn 'Umar (RA) would leave (his house) on the morning of 'Eid-ul-Fitr and 'Adhaa and he would say the takbeer aloud until he reached the musallaa and then make takbeer until the Imaam came. (Reported by al-Daaraqutnee and Ibn Abee Shaibah and others with an authentic chain of narration. Refer to Irwaa al-Ghaleel)
The manner of saying takbeer has not been authentically reported in a hadeeth of the Prophet (SAW) from that which I know, but it has been reported from some of the Companions (RU).
Ibn Mas'ood (RA) used to say:
"Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Laa ilaaha ilallah. Wa-Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. Wa lillaahil-Hamd (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, There is none who has the right to be worshipped except Allah. Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praise)."
(Reported by Ibn Abee Shaibah with an authentic chain of narration)
Ibn 'Abbaas (RA) use to say:
"Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar wa lillaahil Hamd. Allahu Akbar wa ajallu, Allahu Akbar 'alaa maa hadaana (Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest and to Allah belongs all praise. Allah is the Greatest and the Most Sublime. Allah is the Greatest to that which He has guided us to)."
(Reported by Baihaqee and it has an authentic chain of narration)
Abdur-Razzaq transmits by the isnaad of Baihaqee in his book as-Sunan al-Kubra - with an authentic chain of narration - from Salmaan al-Khair (RA):
"Make takbeer of Allah: Say Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar, Allahu Akbar kabeera"
However many of the latter Muslims have opposed this dhikr that is established upon the pious predecessors by innovated dhikr and additions which have NO basis at all.
Thus Haafish Ibn Hajr (ra) said in Fath-ul-Baaree:
"indeed additions (rather additions, after additions) have been invented, on this day, which have NO basis."
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