Chapter 2: What is Islam by Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry



  Next Chapter Previous Chapter

All Books

What is Islam

By Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry


Basic Teachings

I- God is One

II- Muhammad is Messenger of God

III- Qur’an is the Book of God

I- God is One

“God is One and there is no god but God,” is the first and the foremost teaching of Islam. Oneness of God or unity of Godhead is the heart of Islam and Islam’s Holy Scripture, the Qur’an, emphasises this theme in almost every of its second or third verse. Every follower of Islam has not only to believe in One God in his heart but has also to express this belief by his tongue and demonstrate it through his deeds. No body can enter into Islamic faith unless he or she declares there is no god but God and believes truly in this declaration in his or her heart. In the technical language of the religion, the belief in One God is called Tauheed. This concept of unity of God is beautifully expressed in Chapter 112 of the Holy Qur’an which is entitled al-Ikhlas or at–Tauheed. It reads: “Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally Besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him.” Tauheed is belief in Allah with all His powers and attributes.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

God’s Personal Name is Allah

The proper or personal name of God, according to Islam, is “Allah” while He has many other attributive names (of which only 99 have been mentioned in the Qur’an). The word “Allah” is an Arabic word which comprises “Al” and “Ilah”. “Al” is the definite article which means “the”, while “Ilah” means “the being who is worshipped”. When these two words were joined, the letter “I” at the beginning of the second word was dropped for easier pronunciation and thus the word “Allah” resulted. So “Allah” means “The God”, i.e. “the supreme being who is worshipped by all creatures and to whom all turn and pray for fulfilment of their “need”.

His Attributes

God, according to the Qur’an, which is the Holy Scripture of Islam, is the Almighty, All-Powerful, Omnipotent, Omnipresent, Omniscient, All-Knowing and All-Seeing God of the whole of the Universe. He is the Beneficent, the Merciful, the Forgiving. There is no God save Him. He is One and He alone is to be worshipped. He has no partner, no parents, no offspring. He is the Alive, the Eternal, the Helper, the Protector. He is the Sovereign-Lord of the heavens and the earth and shares His Sovereignty with none. He is the creator of everything in the universe. Whatever is in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. He produces everything, then reproduces it. He gives life and death and is the Master of the Day of Judgment. He would resurrect every human after his/her death and would reward the righteous for good deeds with Paradise and would punish the wicked for evil deeds with Hell. He sent messengers and revealed books for the guidance of mankind.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Signs

Islam does not give any philosophical or scientific arguments for the existence of God. Its revealed book, the Qur’an, does not try to prove God by theological reasoning. It provides creations of God and His Signs and portents scattered in the universe, in the nature around us and in ourselves, as the proof of existence of God. “Lo! in the creations of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah’s existence and sovereignty) for people who have sense.”— says the Holy Qur’an (2:164). “And of His signs is this: He created you of dust, and behold you as human beings, ranging widely! and of His signs is this: He created for you helpmates from yourselves (women) that ye might find rest in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo! here in indeed are portents for folk who reflect”.  (al-Qur’an 30:21)

[Back to the start of this chapter]


God is Infinite. We mortal human beings having only finite and limited knowledge cannot define Him nor describe Him. All we know about Him is through His signs which are scattered in the nature around us and through Prophets and revealed books. The Qur’an, the last such revealed book which is the word of God, tells us: “Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The similitude of His light is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in a glass. The glass is as it were a shining star. (This lamp is) kindled from a blessed tree, an olive neither of the East nor of the West, whose oil would almost glow forth (of itself) though no fire touched it. Light upon light, Allah guideth unto His light whom He will. And Allah speaketh to mankind in allegories, for Allah is knower of all things”— (24:35). “Allah! There is no God save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth…….”   (al-Qur’an 2:255).

[Back to the start of this chapter]


God is Omnipresent according to Islam. He is every where. There is no fixed place where we can say that He resides. According to the Qur’an, to God belong the East and the West, whithersoever you turn, there is the Presence of Him. God is with you where so ever you go.” And when My servants question thee concerning Me, then surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto Me. So let them hear My call and let them trust in  Me, in order that they may be led aright”, tells God to Prophet Muhammad (al-Qur’an 2:186). “We verily created man and We know what his soul whispereth to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein”, says God in the Qur’an (50:16), “There is no secret conference of three but He is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of less than that or more but He is with them wheresoever they may be; and afterwards, on the Day of Resurrection, He will inform them of what they did. Lo! Allah is knower of all things.”   (al-Qur’an 58:7).

[Back to the start of this chapter]

He is One

Islam is strictly a monotheistic religion. It believes God is One and there is no God except Him. Unity of Godhead is the fundamental teaching of Islam. The belief in the Oneness of God is the first and the foremost among the five pillars or articles of Islamic faith which every follower of Islam is under obligation to profess and adhere to. None can enter into Islamic brotherhood nor one can remain a Muslim until and unless he declares by tongue and also truly believes in his heart that there is no God but Allah. “Your God is One God; there is no God save Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful”, says the Holy Qur’an (2:163). It is Allah alone whom the Muslims worship: “Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds, the Beneficent, the Merciful. Owner of the Day of Judgment, Thee (alone) we worship; Thee (alone) we ask for help”_ is the prayer of the Muslims in every worship. Addressing the Christians, the Qur’an says: “O people of the scripture! Do not exaggerate in your religion nor utter aught concerning Allah save the truth. The Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, was only a messenger of Allah, and His word which He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him. So believe in Allah and His messengers, and say not “Three”_ cease! (it is) better for you! Allah is only One God. Far is it removed from His transcendent majesty that He should have a son. His is all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth…” (4:171).

[Back to the start of this chapter]

No kin, no partner

God, the Almighty Lord of the cosmos, has neither parents, nor any spouse, nor any son, nor any daughter. The Qur’an says:” Praise be to God, Who hath not taken unto Himself a son, and Who hath no partner in the sovereignty, nor hath He any protecting friend through dependence” (17:111). God is alone and one. He neither begets nor was begotten. “Say: He is Allah, the One! Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begetteth not nor was begotten. And there is none comparable unto Him”, commands the Holy Qur’an (112:1-4)God has no partners and associates in His sovereignty and dominion nor in His attributes. Polytheism is condemned, holding partners unto God is the biggest and unpardonable sin. “Lo! Allah pardoneth not that partners should be ascribed unto Him, He pardoneth all save that to whom He will. Whosoever ascribeth partners unto Allah hath wandered for astray” —Thus warns the Holy Qur’an (4:116)

[Back to the start of this chapter] 

None can see Him

No mortal human being – neither an ordinary one nor even the blessed one like a prophet – can see God. Human eye cannot see God as eye – sight is limited. Prophet Moses expressed his desire to see God but, as the Qur’an tells us, lightening seized him and he fell down unconscious. Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) ascended the heaven but when he was asked had he seen God, he replied: God is light, how can I see Him? The Qur’an says: “Vision comprehendeth Him not, but He comprehendeth (all) vision. He is the Subtile, the Aware”- (6:103). “and it was not (vouchsafed) to any mortal that Allah should speak to him unless (it be) by revelation or from behind a veil, or (that) He sendeth a messenger to reveal what He will by His leave. Lo! He is Exalted, Wise.” (42:51)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Knowledge

God has knowledge of every thing whatsoever is in the heavens and in the earth. He knows your secrets and what you hide in your breasts. He is knower of the visible and the invisible, seen and the unseen, indeed of every thing of past, present or future. “Lo! nothing in the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Allah” says the Qur’an (3:5).” “And with Him are the keys of the invisible. None but He knoweth them. And He knoweth what is in the land and the sea. Not a leaf falleth but He knoweth it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, not of wet or dry but (it is noted) in a clear record”—(al-Qur’an 6:59). The Qur’an further tells us: “Lo! Allah! with Him is the knowledge of the Hour (Doomsday). He sendeth down the rain, and knoweth that which is in the wombs. No soul knoweth what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul knoweth in what land it will die. Lo! Allah is Knower, Aware”- (31:34)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Creations

God is the best and the greatest Creator. He is the only one Who is the originator and the creator of the universe, the heavens and the earth, and of everything which is visible or invisible to human eye and which is known or unknown to man. Heavens and earth, sun and stars, moon and planets, night and day, light and darkness, air and wind, storms and clouds, rain and water, oceans and rivers, mountains and hills, flowing streams and gushing springs, glaciers and icebergs, life and death, plants and gardens, fruits and vegetables, corn and crops, forests and trees, animals and beasts, birds and fish, milk and honey, fire and water are all His creations. He created man of potter’s clay, Angels of light and Jinn of fire. The Qur’an tells us that God created every thing in pairs and created life of water. When God intends to do a thing, He simply says unto it: Be! and it is.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Sovereignty

God is the Sovereign Lord of the whole cosmos. Sovereignty over heavens and the earth and over everything belongs to God. He has no partner in sovereignty. Command over all belongs to Him. He rules over everything. He is the Regulator and the Perfector. He is the Supreme Law-Giver and Supreme-Judge. He is All-Mighty and all-Powerful. He is the source and fountain of power. It is He who bestows honour and power on anyone He will. None can benefit or harm except God. If God intends to give you benefit, none can withhold it, if He intends you harm, none can protect you. He bestows daughters upon whom He will and bestows sons upon whom He will or makes barren whom He will.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Man is His best creation

God created man of the best stature and made him the best of many of His creatures. He created Adam of potter’s clay and asked the Angels to prostrate before him. All did except the Satan who was declared outcast. However, God accepted Satan’s challenge and gave him reprieve till the Day of Resurrection. So Satan misleads the man from right path. He, first of all, misguided Adam and made him to eat from the forbidden tree and thus got him expelled from heaven. Since the Devil misleads Adam’s children to the path of evil and of Hell, God sent messengers and revealed books for the guidance of man. It is against this background that great Prophets like Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad (peace be upon them) were sent and books like Torah, Gospel and the Qur’an were revealed. Those who follow the Prophets, worship God, do good deeds and lead their lives in accordance with guidance revealed by God through His messengers would be rewarded on the Day of Judgement with Paradise wherein they would lead peaceful eternal life. But those who rejected the Prophets, do not believe in God, do evil deeds and follow the Satan would be punished on the Day of Judgement and would be thrown in Hell wherein they would burn and boil and have the worst possible life.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Favours

God has appointed man Caliph (viceroy or deputy) in the earth. It is indeed a great responsibility, indeed a test, for man how he behaves. God has bestowed many favours on man. The Qur’an tells us that many things have been created for service to and benefit of man. The Qur’an says:

Allah is He Who created the heavens and the earth and causeth water to descend from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you, and maketh the ships to be of service unto you that they may run upon the sea at His command, and hath made of service unto you the rivers. And maketh the sun and the moon, constant in their courses, to be of service unto you, and hath made of service unto you the night and the day.  (14:Ibrahim:32-33)

See ye not how Allah hath made serviceable unto you whatsoever is in the skies and whatsoever is in the earth and hath loaded you with His favours both without and within? Yet of mankind is he who disputeth concerning Allah, without knowledge or guidance or a Scripture giving light.   (31:Luqman:20)

God is great benefactor of man. His favours and bounties on man are innumerable. Some of His favours have been counted by the Qur’an in its above verses, whereas there are countless favours of God which are not even known to man. God’s favours within the man are man’s eyes with which he sees, ears with which he hears, hearts with which he reflects, hands with which he does everything and feet with which he walks. Indeed man is a great handiwork of God and his every limb is of immense use to him.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Provides Sustenance

God is the greatest and the best Sustainer, Provider, Preserver, Protector and Nourisher of all created-beings. He provides subsistence, food and other means of living to all living beings. The Qur’an says: “He placed therein (in the earth) firm hills rising above it, and blessed it and measured there in its sustenance in four days, alike for all who ask”._(41:10). The Qur’an reminds the man of Allah’s favour in providing food: “Who hath appointed the earth a resting place for you and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you”. (2:22). Allah provides sustenance to everyone. “And there is not a beast in the earth but the sustenance thereof dependeth on Allah…..” (al-Qur’an 11:6). It is God who increases and decreases subsistence. “Allah enlargeth livelihood for whom He will, and straiteneth it for whom He will (al-Qur’an 13:26). Allah preserves the heavens and the earth. “….. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth and He is never weary of preserving them……” (al-Qur’an 2:255). “…..Have they not seen the birds obedient in mid air? None holdeth them save Allah ….” (al-Qur’an 16:79).

[Back to the start of this chapter]

All creatures worship Him

All creatures and all things worship and glorify God in their own way. “Have they not observed all things that Allah hath created, how their shadows incline to the right and to the left, making prostration unto Allah, and they are lowly? And unto Allah maketh prostration whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, and the Angels (also), and they are not proud. They fear their Lord above them, and do what they are bidden”. says the revealed book of Islam (16:48-50). “The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein praise Him, and there is not a thing but hymneth His praise; but ye understand not their praise……. (al-Qur’an 17:44). “Haste thou not seen that unto Allah payeth adoration whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many of mankind ……” (al-Qur’an 22:18).

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Man’s duties towards Him

Man is God’s best creation and God has made man viceroy in the earth, has set many of His creatures to serve man and has bestowed on man many favours, which we have mentioned above. So man owes more gratefulness to God than other creatures. Therefore, there are many obligations of man towards his creator. He should believe in Him and should worship Him alone. He should glorify God and hymn His praise. He should love God and remember Him always, sitting, walking, lying. He should fear God and be kind and merciful to others. He should pray to God alone and seek help only from Him. He should trust in God and seek His refuge from Satan the outcast. He should follow the Prophets and lead his life in accordance with their teachings. It is only then that man would succeed and would justify his creation. He can then hope for reward when God resurrects the dead on the Day of Judgement.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

II- Muhammad is the Messenger of God

Muhammad (peace be upon him), the prophet of Islam, is the last of the Messengers of God who have been sent to mankind for guidance and whose exact number is not known to anyone except God. But they were certainly in thousands if not in millions. In the Qur’an which is the revealed book of Islam, the names of only a few messengers of God have been mentioned, the most famous among them being Adam, Nuh, Hud, Saleh, Abraham, Ismail, Isac, Jacob, Shoaib, Moses, Jesus Christ and Muhammad (may Allah’s peace be upon them). The chain of the prophets starts from Adam who was also the first human being and it ends with Muhammad who is the final prophet of Allah.

The book revealed to Muhammad (PBUH) is Al-Qur’an which is the last revealed message of God to mankind, the religion given to him is Al-Islam which is the first and last religion and was in fact given to every prophet who preceded Muhammad (PBUH). He has been called by the Qur’an as a messenger of Allah, a warner and a bringer of good news, a seal of the Prophets and witness on the Day of Judgment. He is a messenger to all mankind and his mission is universal. He is a mercy for humanity and was foretold by pervious Prophets specially by Jesus. He is role model for his followers and his conduct and character has been called supreme and superb by the Qur’an. His sayings, his traditions, his practices, his conventions (collectively called the Sunnah) carry great authority for the believers, being only next to the Qur’an which is the word of God.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Brief Biographical Sketch

Muhammad, (PBUH) was born at Makkah in Arabia, in the Hashmite branch of the tribe of Quraish who were descendants of Prophet Ismael, the son of Prophet Abraham (Ibrahim). He was born on Monday, the 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 53 years before Hijrah (corresponding to 23rd April, 571 A.D.) at Makkah, and breathed his last on Monday, 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, 11 A.H. (corresponding to 8th of June, 632 A.D.) at Madinah. He lost his father Abdullah before his birth, his mother Aminah at the age of six and his loving grandfather Abdul Muttalib at the age of eight, and was thus left to the care of his uncle Abu Talib who brought him up like his own son. His excellent conduct and character earned for him the names of Al-Sadiq (the truthful) and al-Amin (the trustworthy) at very young age. He married a rich widow of Quraish named Khadija at the age of twenty five who was fifteen year senior to him. At the age of forty, Muhammad received the light of first revelation through the Archangel Gabriel in the cave of Hira and thus he was commissioned as the apostle or messenger of Allah. He migrated to Madinah as the people of his own tribe Quraish severely persecuted him and his followers when he started preaching his religion. He reached Madinah on Friday, 2nd July 622 A.D. and from this very date the Islamic Lunar calendar Al-Hijrah starts. At Madinah the Prophet had to wage many wars in defence of his faith and in the defence of his own life and the lives of his followers against the Quraish, the Jews and the other hostile tribes. By the time of Prophet’s death, all the Arabia had submitted to Islam and a powerful Islamic state under his headship had been established at Madinah.

[Back to the start of this chapter]


Coming of Muhammad as Messenger of God was prayed for by Prophet Abraham and was foretold by the later Prophets. Prophet Abraham, who is the forefather of the Jews and the Arabs and who is held in high esteem by all the three monotheistic religions of mankind (Judaism, Christianity and Islam), built ‘Kaabah’ at Makkah and settled his eldest son Ismael there. He, then, prayed to God for raising a messenger among his posterity in these words: “Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, the Wise” (al-Qur’an 2:129).

Prophecies about the advent of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had been made in the earlier Scriptures like Torah and Bible. The Qur’an points out this fact very clearly when it says:

Those who follow the messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find described in the Torah and the Gospel (which are) with them. He will enjoin on them that which is right and forbid them that which is wrong. He will make lawful for them all good things and probibit for them only the foul; and he will relieve them of their burden and the fetters that they used to wear. Then those who believe in him, and honour him, and help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him; they are the successful. (7:Al-A’raf:157)

Some of the learned Jews recognized the Prophet of Arabia and embraced Islam like Abdullah-ibn-Salam, Ka’b-ibn-Malik. The Qur’an refers to this fact in its following verses:

And lo, it is in the Scriptures of the men of old. Is it not a token for them that the doctors of the children of Israel know it. (26:Ash-Shu’ara’:196-197)

Prophet Moses (PBUH) also spoke of the advent of a Prophet among the Arabs, as the Qur’an tells us in its following verse:

Bethink ye: If it is from Allah and ye disbelieve therein and a witness of the Children of Israel hath already testified to the like thereof and hath believed, and ye are too proud (what plight is yours)?  Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.  (46:Al-Ahqaf:10)

Prophet Jesus Christ foretold the coming of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, in very clear words and even mentioned his name.

And when Jesus son of Mary said: O Children of Israel! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah unto you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in the Torah, and bringing good tidings of a messenger who cometh after me, whose name is the Praised One (Ahmad). Yet when he hath come unto them with clear proofs, they say: This is mere magic. (Al-Qur’an 61:6)


According to Torah, which forms part of Jewish Bible (called Old Testament by the Christians), Prophet Moses (PBUH) addressing his people says: “Thy Lord thy god will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, and of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken.” (Deuteronomy 18:15). In Verse No 18 and 19 of Chapter No 18 of Deuteronomy, God addressing Moses and his people says: “I shall raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them all that I shall command him. And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not hearken unto my words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.” In these verses of Torah the words “thy brethren” and “their brethren” clearly refer to the Arabs who are the children of Ismael (son of Prophet Abraham) and the words “a Prophet like unto me” or “like unto thee” clearly refer to Prophet Muhammad who is a Prophet like Prophet Moses.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Sent to all Mankind

Prophets who had come before Muhammad (PBUH) had been sent to their tribes or communities with a limited mission. Prophet Noah had been sent to his nation. Prophet Hud had been sent to his tribe A’d while Prophet Salih had come to his tribe Thamud. Prophet Abraham had come to his folk, while Prophet Lot had been sent to Sodom. Prophet Shuaib came to Median to teach the people ethics of business. Moses came to save the children of Israel from the bondage of Pharaoh. Jesus said of himself that he has been sent by God “to the lost sheep of the house of Israel”

However, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was sent by God as the last messenger to the whole of mankind with a universal mission. The Qur’an says: “say (O Muhammad): o mankind! Lo! I am the messenger of Allah to you all —(the messenger of Him) unto whom belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth ….” (7:158). God confirms this fact:- “And We have not sent thee (O Muhammad) save as a bringer of good tidings and a warner unto all mankind; but most of mankind know not”. (al-Qur’an 34:28)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Seal of Prophets- Finality of Prophethood

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is the last one in the chain of Prophets which started with Adam and which includes Prophets like Noah, Hud, Saleh, Abraham, Ismael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Moses, David, Solomon, John and Jesus. He is the final Prophet with the last message of God to mankind. The Qur’an says: “Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the messenger of Allah and the seal of the Prophets; and Allah is Aware of all things”. (33:40). With Muhammad (PBUH) Prophethood came to an end. Message given to him (the Qur’an) is the last revealed message. Religion (al-Islam) has been completed and perfected. No Prophet would come after him till the Day of Resurrection as none is needed. Any body who claims to be a prophet after Muhammad (PBUH) is simply a liar and an imposter.

According to Qur’an (3:85), no religion is acceptable to Allah except Islam i.e. the Surrender. God has perfected his religion Al – Islam (5:3) . It means that there is no need of any other prophet after him since Al – Islam the only acceptable religion to God has been completed. Moreover, Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the messenger of God to the whole of mankind (7:158), while the messengers before him had been sent to their tribes or communities with a limited mission. According to verse 40 of Chapter 33 of al-Qur’an, Muhammad (P.B.U.H) is the seal of the Prophets. To use the words of Allama Abdullah Yusuf All. When a document is sealed it is complete and there can be no further addition. So the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) closed the long line of Apostles.

Abu Hurairah reported that the Messenger of Allah said: “The parable of myself and the parable of the Prophets is as the parable of a palace of which the construction has been made good but wherein the place of a brick has been left out. The on-lookers went round it wondering at its good construction except for the place of the brick. It is I who closed up the place of the brick. The construction has, therefore, been sealed by me, and the messengers have come to an end with me. And in a narration: I am the brick and I am the seal of the Prophets.” (Bukhari, Muslim). There is another tradition reported in Bukhari that prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The children of Israel were guided by the prophets. When a prophet died, another succeeded him. However, there will be no prophet after me, there will be only caliphs.” Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) reiterated this fact: “there is no prophet after me and there is no Ummah after my Ummah”. (Baihaqi)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Conduct

Prophet Muhammad was the most perfect man endowed with each and every virtue which goes to make up good conduct. The Qur’an calls his conduct sublime and great (68:4). He has been called mercy for the mankind, rather for the whole world, rather for the God’s all creations. “We sent thee not, but as a Mercy for all creatures”. (al-Qur’an 21:107). The Qur’an appreciates his lenient conduct and enjoins him to consult his followers and ask forgiveness for them: “It was by the mercy of Allah that thou wast lenient with them (O Muhammad), for if thou hadst been stern and fierce of heart they would have dispersed from round about thee. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when thou art resolved, then put thy trust in Allah. Lo! Allah loveth those who put their trust (in Him).” (3:159). Muhammad’s concern for believers and his compassion for them has been stressed in another verse by the Holy Qur’an which reads: “There hath come unto you a messenger, (one) of yourselves unto whom aught that ye are overburdened is grievous, full of concern for you, for the believers full of pity, merciful.”(9:128). The Qur’an sets up the conduct of Muhammad as a role model for the believers when it says: “Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the Last Day, and remembereth Allah much.” (33:21).     

  Even before his call to Prophethood, Muhammad was held in high esteem by his people for excellence of his behaviour and character. He was known as the “Truthful” and the “Trust Worthy”. When the first revelation came to him, Muhammad returned home very disgusted and depressed. He narrated the episode to his wife Khadijah who consoled him by saying “Allah will never humiliate you. Certainly you observe the tie of kinship, speak the truth and bear the burden of others and help the destitute and entertain the guests and help others in genuine distress.”

When asked by a person about the conduct (Khuluq) of the prophet many years after death, his wife Ayesha said “Have you not read the Qur’an? – his khuluq was the Qur’an” (Muslim, Abu Daud, and Nisai). There is a long line of very authentic traditions reported in most reliable collections of Hadith literature that the character and conduct of Muhammad (PBUH) was the most excellent and he was the greatest man the world had ever seen.

  • Jaber reported that the messenger of Allah said: “Allah sent me to complete the excellent virtues and to perfect the good actions” (Mishkat-ul-Masabih)

  • Anas reported that a man begged the Holy Prophet of the sheep between two hills. He gave them to him. He (the man) came to his people and said: O people! Accept Islam. Verily Muhammad certainly gives away in charity so much that he does not fear poverty (Muslim).

  • Jaber reported: Apostle of Allah was never asked for anything for which he said “No” (Bukhari, Muslim).

  • Anas reported: The apostle of Allah was the best of men, the most generous of men and the bravest of men……  (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • Abu Hurairah reported: He was questioned: O. Apostle of Allah! Invoke against the polytheists. He replied: Verily I have not been sent as a great curser, but I have been sent as a mercy. (Muslim)

  • Ayesha reported: The Prophet was not accustomed to talk hastily as you do. He was accustomed to talk in such a way that if a counter counted, he could have certainly numbered it. (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • Ayesha reported: The Apsotle of Allah was never asked to choose between two things except that he choose the easier of the two so long as it was not sinful. If it was sinful, he used to keep farther from it than all the people. The apostle of Allah did never take revenge for any wrong done to him personally except to vindicate the honour of Allah: he used then to take revenge for Allah. (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • Ayesha reported: The Apostle of Allah was neither indecent by nature, nor indecent by compulsion, nor a wanderer in the markets, nor did he return evil for evil, but he forgave and pardoned. (Tirmizi)

  • Anas narrated about the Holy Prophet that he used to visit the sick, follow the bier, respond to the invitation of a slave and ride upon mules. I have indeed seen him on the Day of Khaiber upon mule with a rein of date refuge. (Ibn Majah, Baihaqi)

  • Ayesha reported that the Holy Prophet used to mend his shoes, sew his cloth and work in his household just as one of you works in his own house. She also reported that he was a man among men who used to patch his clothes, milk his goats and engage himself in work. (Tirmizi)

  • Abdullah-b-Hares reported: I did not see anybody smiling more than the Apostle of Allah. (Tirmizi)

  • Anas reported that whenever the Prophet handshook with a man, he used not to take away his hand from his hand till the latter took away his hand, nor did he turn away his face from him till the latter turned away his face from him. He was not seen to take steps in front of his friends. (Tirmizi)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

His Personality

Beautiful and vivid description of the personality and physical bearing of Muhammad (PBUH) has come down to us through the well reported Hadith literature.

  • Anas reported that the Apostle of Allah was neither too long nor short, neither too white nor brown, neither too curly-haired nor straight haired….  (Bukhari, Muslim)

  • Ali-bin-Abu Talib reported: that whenever he described the Prophet, he used to say: He was not too long nor too short, middle-statured among the people, not greatly curly haired, nor straight haired, strong and stout, neither too big nor too short, round of face, white-red complexioned black of eye-balls, long of eye-lances, fleshy of the bone and place between shoulders; hairless having one line of hair on  chest having thick palms and feet. When he walked, he stepped firm as if he was walking in a slopping ground; when he turned, he turned the whole body; there was the seal of porphethood between his shoulders and it was the seal of the prophets, most generous of men in generosity, most truthful of men in tongue, most affable of them in deportment, most honourable of them in lineage. Whoso saw him all on a sudden, got frightened and whoso mixed with him with acquaintance loved him. One who described him said: I saw nobody like him before him and after him. (Tirmizi)

  • Umm Ma’bad said: “His was an innocently bright and broad countenance. His manners were fine. Neither was his belly bulging out nor was his head deprived of hair. He had black attractive eyes finely arched by continuous eye-brows. His hair, glossy and black, inclined to curl, he wore long. His voice was extremely commanding. His head was large and well formed and set on a slender neck. His expression was pensive and contemplative, serene and sublime. The stranger was fascinated from the distance, but no sooner he became intimate with him this fascination was changed into attachment and respect. His expression was very sweet and distinct. His speech was well set and free from the use of superfluous words, as if it were a rosary of beads. His stature was neither too high nor too small so as to look repulsive. He was twig amongst the two, singularly bright and fresh, He was always surrounded by his companions. Whenever he uttered something the listeners would hear him with rapt attention and whenever he issued any command, they vied with each other in carrying it out. He was a master and a commander. His utterances were marked by truth and sincerity, free from all kinds of falsehoods and lies.”

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Role Model for believers- Importance of his Sunnah

The deeds, behaviour, character and conduct of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) is a role model for the Muslims rather for the whole of mankind. The Qur’an says: Verily in the messenger of Allah ye have a good example for him who looketh unto Allah and the last Day….. (33:21). He has been called a guide and a light by the Holy Qur’an at another place: “Now hath come unto you light from Allah and a plain Scripture” (5:15). The Prophet lived an ideal life in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Qur’an and, therefore, his conduct, as stated earlier, was called “the Qur’an” by his wife Ayesha in response to a question. Obedience to him has been enjoined upon his followers. The Qur’an says: “and obey Allah and the messenger, that ye may find mercy” (3:132).

The believers have been exhorted to follow the Prophet because to follow the Prophet would earn them Allah’s love. The Qur’an says “Say (O Muhammad to mankind): If ye love Allah, follow me: Allah will love you and forgive you your sins…..” (3:31)

Thus the life of the Prophet of Islam is a pattern of ideal conduct and behaviour for his followers who try their best to emulate it. Each saying of the Prophet, each action or deed done by him, each practice or convention set by him, carries sanctity for the Muslims. Here lies the importance of the Sunnah or Hadith which comprises sayings of the Prophet, his traditions, his deeds and his conduct of various problems. The believers have been, therefore, directed “…. And whatsoever the messenger giveth you, take it. And whatsoever he forbiddeth, abstain (from it). And keep your duty to Allah….” (al-Qur’an 59:7)

The importance of the Sunnah lies in the fact that the Prophet of Islam gave practical shape to the Qur’anic teachings by living his life in accordance with the Injunctions of Allah. He lived a very active life as an ideal man. He married. He had wives. He had children. He had to work for earning livelihood. As a Prophet and a preacher of Islam, he was persecuted. He had to migrate to a distant town. There, he established a state and created a society in accordance with the teachings of God. He had to fight many battles for his survival and for the survival of new faith and the newly established state. During all these trials and vicissitudes of life, he displayed a model behaviour and decided every issue in the light of the Qur’anic teachings. He set illuminating precedents for us to follow. The Qur’an generally lays down the basic principles and guidelines which were interpreted, explained and given practical shape by the Prophet. Some illustration can be given to highlight this point. The Qur’an makes Salat (prayer) compulsory for believers and has hinted about the times of prayers also. But the procedure in which the prayers, five times a day are to be offered, has been set by the Prophet. Similarly, Allah has made payment of Zakat obligatory, but detailed rules have not been laid down in the Qur’an. It is the Prophet of Islam who made detailed rules and set up procedure for the payment of Zakat. Again, in political, legal and economic fields, the Qur’an has laid down the fundamental principles and the Prophet applied these principles to the actual problems and set the details and procedures.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

III- Qur’an is the Book of God

The revealed book

Al-Qur’an is the name of the last revealed book of Allah which forms the holy or religious scripture of Islam. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (PBUH), the last messenger of Allah to mankind, in parts in a span of twenty two and half years between 610 A.D. to 632 A.D. i.e. from his appointment as apostle at the age of forty till his death at the age of sixty three. The first revelation was made on 27th of Ramadan 13 years before Hijrah and the last on 9th of Zil Hijah of 10th A.H. The period comprises 12.5 years of Prophet’s life at Makkah during which 90 or 91 Surahs (chapters) were reveled and last 10 years of Prophet’s life at Madinah during which 23 or 24 Surahs are reported to have been revealed.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Its contents

The Qur’an comprises 114 Surahs (chapters) divided into 6238 (according to some research scholars, 6247) ‘Ayahs’ (Verses). Each Surah bears a name taken from something mentioned in it, e.g. the second Surah is called “Baqarah” (the ‘cow’) because of the mention of a cow which the children of Israel were required by the Lord to sacrifice. In every case (except. Surah nine) all the surahs are introduced by “Bismillah”, “In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.” Of these Surahs, 29 are such which begin with the letters or alphabets (such as Alif Lam Mim) that are mysterious and have always been the object of explanations and comments among scholars of the Qur’an. For the convenience of the reader or reciter, the Qur’an is also divided into 30 paras (or parts) and 7 manazal (or portions). The arrangement of Ayahs and Surahs is not in order in which they were revealed, but in accordance with a plan sanctioned by the Prophet himself under guidance of Allah. Most of the verses which embody rules of law were revealed to settle questions that actually arose for decision. That may be one of the reasons why the book was revealed in stages. To this fact reference is also found in the Qur’an itself in its verses 32and 33 of chapter 25 (Surah Al-Furqan). Mainly the law of Islam is found in chapters2,3,4,5,6,8,9,17,24,33,49,65, of the Qur’an.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Its Names

The Qur’an calls itself by various names, most famous of which are: al-Qur’an, al-Furq’an, al-Kitab, al-Dhikr, al-Hakim, etc. The term Qur’an is used in two ways: as participle it means to read; as an object, it means a thing which is read.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Revealed in Arabic

The Holy Qur’an was brought by the Archangel Gabriel to the Prophet of Islam in Arabic language. The Qur’an testifies this: “We revealed it, a lecture in Arabic, that ye may understand” (12:2)

And lo! it is a revelation of the Lord of the Worlds which the True Spirit hath brought down, upon thy heart, that thou mayst be (one) of the warners in plain Arabic speech.  — (26:192-195)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Its Collection and Compilation

It is proved by Ijma and continuity that the collection, arrangement and compilation of the Qur’an was complete during the life-time of the Prophet (PBUH). The present arrangement of the Qur’an is the same and there has been no change since then. The Holy Prophet had appointed an efficient team of expert calligraphists. They are known as writers of revelation (Katiban Wahi) whose number was 26, but according to some they were 42. The most illustrious among scribes were: Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Zaid bin Thabit, Abi bin Kaab, Muadh bin Jabbal, Abdullah bin Masud, Abu Zaid, Abu Darda and Aamer bin Fahira. The companions of the Holy Prophet used to write and learn the Holy Qur’an by heart. Since paper was scarce, they used to write it on the palm leaves, the epitaph of stones, the broad shoulder-bones of the camels and on pieces of skins. It may not have been in a single volume at that time due to the difficulty in the consolidation of such scattered material, yet it was committed to memory by many reciters (Hafaaz) in arranged form. It was also available in written form in complete shape.

Internal evidence is provided from the following verses of the Qur’an that the revealed book of Islam was in its written form from the very beginning. See the following verses of al-Qur’an:

  • This is the scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil). (2:2)

  • That (this is indeed) a noble Qur’an. In a book kept hidden. Which none toucheth save the purified, a revelation from the Lord of the worlds. (56:77-80)

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, almost 70 reciters (hafaaz) were martyred, so Umar persuaded Abu Bakr to have the Qur’an compiled in a single volume. Thus, under the orders of Abu Bakr, Zaid bin Thabit compiled a volume of the Qur’an and from this volume copies were prepared. One copy was retained by Abu Bakr, and after his death by Umar, who before his death, entrusted it to his daughter Hafsah, widow of the Prophet. By the time of the third caliph Uthman, many countries had been conquered and various non-Arab nations had been converted to Islam who were not familiar with the various dialects in which the Qur’an was read. Uthman, assembled Ummah on a single dialect (Qir’at) of Quraish. He got the volume of Abu Bakr from Hafsah and ordered Zaid bin Thabit to prepare copies on the dialect of Quraish which was the pronunciation of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). One copy was sent to each province for the facility of the newly converted Muslims. The punctuation marks (Aarab) were applied to the words of the Qur’an during the times of the Ummayed caliphs.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

It confirms previous Scriptures

The Holy Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, confirms the previous revealed books like Torah which was given to Prophet Moses, Zabur (Psalms) which was revealed to Prophet David and Injeel (the Gospel) which was revealed to Prophet Jesus.

  • He hath revealed unto thee (Muhammad) the Scripture with truth, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, even as He revealed the Torah and the Gospel. A foretime, for a guidance to mankind; and hath revealed the Criterion (of right and wrong). Lo! those who disbelieve the revelations of Allah, theirs will be a heavy doom. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong). (3:Al-Imran:3-4)

  • And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. (5:Al-Ma’idah:48)

  • And this Qur’an is not such as could ever be invented despite of Allah; but it is a confirmation of that which was before it and an exposition of that which is decreed for mankind- therein is no doubt-from the Lord of the Worlds. (10:Yunus:37)

The Qur’an not only confirms the basic teachings of these books but is also watcher over the previous revealed books. It means that the authenticity of these books can be judged by reference to the Qur’an. It is an established fact that previous revealed books have not been preserved properly in original form by their followers. These holy books have been subjected to many alterations, modifications and corruptions. The Qur’an only confirms those contents of the said books which have remained safe from corruption. The confirmation of the previous scriptures by the Qur’an proves, beyond shadow of doubt, that the author of all these books is the same. All have been revealed by God, the Almighty Lord of the Universe, for guidance of man in different languages, in different ages, at different places.

Besides confirming the preserved teachings of the previous Scriptures, the Holy Qur’an explains, expounds and clarifies controversies and differences which have arisen among the followers of previous Prophets. “Lo! this Qur’an narrateth unto children of Israel most of that concerning which they differ.” (al-Qur’an 27:76). “And We have revealed the Scripture unto thee only that thou mayst explain unto them that wherein they differ, and (as) a guidance and mercy for a people who believe’ (al-Qur’an 16:64). “And we reveal the Scripture unto thee as an exposition of all things” (al-Qur’an 16:89).

[Back to the start of this chapter]

God its Protector

Qur’an is a book which is very well-preserved. Unlike books of previous Prophets, the book revealed to Muhammad (PBUH) is into hundred percent original form in which it was given to the Prophet. Books of previous Prophets were destroyed, reconstructed with the aid of human memory and suffered from omissions or commissions, additions or deletions. Sometimes they were deliberately corrupted or altered for a small material gain. Thus these previous Scriptures lost most of their original teachings. But this is not the case with the Qur’an. The Qur’an, as history is witness to it, has maintained its text, its language, its words, its arrangement, its teachings absolutely in original form. Not a single letter or a single word or a single punctuation mark has been changed in it what to speak of any major corruption. None could change it nor even prophet Muhammad (PBUH). In fact Almighty God has taken upon Himself the responsibility to safeguard His last revealed book from any corruption. God is the guardian of Qur’an and so the book would maintain itself up to Doomsday. The Qur’an says:

  • And when our clear revelations are recited unto them, they who look not for the meeting with Us say: bring a Lecture other than this or change it. Say (O Muhammad): It is not for me to change it of my own accord. I only follow that which is inspired in me. Lo! If I disobey my Lord I fear the retribution of an awful Day. Say: If Allah had so willed I should not have recited it to you nor would He have made it known to you. I dwelt among you a whole lifetime before it (came to me). Have ye then no sense? Who doth a greater wrong than he who inventeth a lie concerning Allah and denieth His revelations? Lo! the guilty never are successful. (10:Yunus:15-17)

  • Lo! We, even We, reveal the Reminder, and lo! We verily are its Guardian. (15:Al – Hijr:9)

  • And recite that which hath been revealed unto thee of the Scripture of thy Lord. There is none who can change His words, and thou wilt find no refuge beside Him. (18:Al – Kahf:27)

Muhammad Asad, a Jew turned Muslim, who is a great scholar and commentator of the Qur’an writes while explaining verse 9 of Chapter 15 of the Qur’an: “This prophecy has been strikingly confirmed by the fact that the text of the Qur’an has remained free from all alterations, additions or deletions ever since it was enunciated by the Prophet in the seventh century of the Christian era; and there is no other instance of any book, of whatever description, which has been similarly preserved over such a length of time. The early-noted variants in the reading of certain words of the Qur’an, occasionally referred to by the classical commentators, represent no more than differences in respect of diacritical marks or of vocalization, and, as a rule, do not affect the meaning of the passage in question.”

[Back to the start of this chapter]

It provides guidance in all fields of life

It is the fundamental belief of the Muslims that their religious book, Al-Qur’an is complete code of human life. Al-Qur’an provides guidance to human beings in all spheres of human activity starting from individual to socio-political, from family life to national and international relations, and from religious to mundane affairs. The following verses of the Qur’an are cited to confirm that the Holy book of Islam provides guidance to mankind in all fields of life:-

  • ……(It is) an exposition of that which is decreed for mankind……      (10:37)

  • (This is) a Scripture the revelations whereof are perfected and then expounded. (It cometh) from One Wise, Informed   (11:1)

  • And We have revealed the Scripture unto thee only that thou mayst explain to them that wherein they differ……… (16:64)

  • ………And We reveal the Screpture unto thee as an exposition of all things………  (16:89)

  • Lo! He Who hath given thee the Qur’an for a law will surely bring thee home again…….(28:85)

  • Lo! We have revealed unto thee the Scripture for mankind with truth……. (39:41)

  • This is not else than a reminder unto creation (81:27)

Mainly the Qur’an lays down guidelines in the following fields:

  1. Religious duties, worship of Allah and devotional matters.

  2. Family laws-marriage, dower, divorce, Iddah, etc

  3. Inheritance and will.

  4. Social reforms: gambling, infanticide and drinking have been prohibited while polygamy is limited. Status of woman and slaves raised.

  5. Penal law: Crime and punishment.

  6. Civil laws: contract, mortgage, etc.

  7. Law of evidence.

  8. Dispensation of Justice.

  9. Constitutional law and political system.

  10. Law of war and Jihad.

  11. Economic and financial principles – revenue, public finance, trade, sale and purchase.

  12. International relations.

  13. Hilal and Haram (permitted and forbidden)

  14. Do’s and Don’ts. Commandments and prohibitions.

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Word of God

“Muslims consider the Qur’an", says the Encyclopedia Americana,” to be the very words of God Himself. The messages given to Muhammad by the angel were taken from Heavenly Book, uncreated and eternally coexistent with God, that is called the Mother of the Book or the Well-Preserved Tablet. This eternal book represents the eternal Speech of God, the expression of His truth and His will for the universe. Books of previous prophets, such as the Gospel of Jesus or the Torah of Moses, were also taken from this source. The Qur'an is but another yet the highest and final instance, of God’s offering guidance to straying men through Scripture brought by His chosen messengers. Followers of previous prophets like the Christians and Jews had corrupted their messages, thereby necessitating the sending down of the Qur’an to restore the purity of divine guidance.”

“As the very words of God, the Qur’an is the foremost authority for Muslims in all matters of faith and practice. They pay it enormous reverence and have been at pains to preserve its contents exactly as they were received from the Prophet. There is probably no other book in history, including the Bible, that has been so much studied or commented upon. Studies that deal with its various aspects fill entire libraries and have been composed in all the important languages of the Islamic world.”

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Recited and memorized

Besides seeking guidance from the Qur’an on every important issue, every Muslim holds the Qur’an in high reverence. The book is kept at the cleanest place in the house and is never laid on the ground. Not even a word or leaf of it is thrown into dust or waste paper basket. No believer touches it except after performing ablution or purifying bath. The verses of the book are recited at every religious or social ceremony and daily prayers also include its recitations. In the month of Ramadan the whole of Qur’an is recited in special prayers. All over the Muslim world there exist schools (called madaris) specifically reserved to teach and memorize the Qur’an to children. One who learns the Qur’an by heart is called ‘hafiz’ (memorizer) and he is held in high esteem. The memorizing of the Qur’an is regarded an act of great religious merit and spiritual excellence. In every Muslim country there are hundred of thousands of persons who have committed the Qur’an to memory.

Since the Muslims consider the words of the Qur’an to be the words of God, historically they have lavished their highest art on the calligraphic presentation of the Qur’anic text. Verses from the Qur’an in elegant calligraphy decorate the facades and walls of mosques, religious seminaries, tombs of saints and other public buildings. Every Muslim believes that the Qur’an has five rights upon him, namely: It should be believed in; it should be read or recited and if one is unable to read it one must listen to its recitation; its meaning and message should be understood; its teachings should be strictly followed, and finally it should be taught to others. A true Muslim tries to discharge his obligations to the Holy book so that he may not be one of those on the Day of Judgement against whom Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) would make complaint: “Then the Apostle will say: O my Lord! Truly my people took this Qur’an for just foolish nonsense” (al-Qur’an 25:30)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

Its appeal to human reason

The Qur’an, the revealed book of Islam, does not command blind following. It does not say that one must follow the Qur’an and believe in and act upon its teachings without applying one’s mind. Rather it appeals to human reason to see, to think, to reflect, to meditate and ponder over the portraits and signs of God and then believe in Him and follow the Prophet and his teachings. The Qur’an severely condemns those who do not think and ponder over the creations of God. It says: “Already have We urged unto Hell many of the Jinn and the humankind, having hearts wherewith they understand not, and having eyes wherewith they see not, and having ears wherewith they hear not. They are as the cattle-nay, but they are worse! These are the neglectful” (7:179) “Have they not travelled in the land, and have they hearts wherewith to feel and ears wherewith to hear? For indeed it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are within the bosoms, that grow blind”-(22:46)

Those who remember God and ponder over His creations and do not follow blindly have been praised in the following verses of the holy book:

  • Such as remember Allah standing, sitting, and reclining, and consider the creation of the heavens and the earth (and say): Our Lord, Thou createdst  not this in vain. Glory be to Thee…. (3:190-191)

  • And those who when they are reminded of the revelations of their Lord, fall not deaf and blind thereat. (25:73)

[Back to the start of this chapter]

  Next Chapter Previous Chapter

All Books


The pages of this website are optimized to be viewed by Java script enabled Microsoft Internet Explorer® version 6 or later (only), with screen resolution of 800 by 600 pixels.

Copyright ©2003 by the author, Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry

Rights of the book are reserved with the Author. However, you are allowed to reproduce, translate, print or publish this book with prior permission of the author and without any royalty or fee. The book must be published without any change in its matter or authorship. It will be highly kind of you if you post some copies of the publication to the author for record. For more details please click here.

This page updated on October 19, 2003. Created with Microsoft FrontPage® 2003.