Concept of God in the Qur'an by Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry Chapter 7



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Concept of God in the Qur’an

By Dr. Muhammad Sharif Chaudhry



  1. God Gives Life and Death

  2. Resurrection of the Dead

  3. Day of Judgment

  4. Paradise

  5. Hell

1 – God Gives Life and Death

It is God who gives life and causes death. No human being, no animal, no living creature can come into existence of its own, neither it can die before the time fixed by God nor it can avert or delay its death when the fixed time comes. God creates and gives life to every creature and He gives death to every living one. Besides God, you have no protecting friend nor helper and unto Him you will return after your death. God created you, then sustained you, then causes you to die, then He will give life to you again. This is the cycle of life which the Holy Qur’an highlights. Death is inevitable and is inavertible. Every soul will taste of death. The Holy Qur’an says:

1.       How disbelieve ye in Allah when ye were dead and He gave life to you! Then he will give you death, then life again, and then unto Him ye will return.—2: Al–Baqarah: 28

2.       O ye who believe! Be not as those who disbelieved and said of their brethren who went abroad in the land or were fighting in the field: If they had been (here) with us they would not have died or been killed; that Allah may make it anguish in their hearts. Allah giveth life and causeth death; and Allah is Seer of what ye do.—3: Al–Imran: 156

3.       Wheresoever ye may be, death will overtake you, even though ye were in lofty towers ………—4: An–Nisa: 78

4.       Lo! Allah! Unto Him belongeth the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He quickeneth and He giveth death. And ye have, instead of Allah, no protecting friend nor helper.
—9:At–Taubah: 116

5.       Every soul must taste of death, and We try you with evil| and with good, for ordeal. And unto Us ye will be returned.
—21: Al–Anbiya: 35

6.       Allah is He Who created you and then sustained you, then causeth you to die, then giveth life to you again. Is there any of your (so called) partners (of Allah) that doeth aught of that? Praised and exalted be He above what they associate (with Him)!30: Ar–Rum: 40

7.       Allah receiveth (men's) souls at the time of their death, and that (soul) which dieth not (yet) in its sleep. He keepeth that (soul) for which He hath ordained death and dismisseth the rest till an appointed term. Lo! herein verily are portents for people who take thought.—39: Az–Zumar: 42

8.       Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Allah giveth life to you, then causeth you to die, then gathereth you unto the Day of Resurrection whereof there is no doubt. But most of mankind know not.—45: Al–Jathiyah: 26

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2 – Resurrection of the Dead

The Holy Qur’an tells us that after our death, God would raise us and give us life again. This would be our resurrection (of body and soul) which would happen on the Day of Resurrection, also called Day of Judgment or Doomsday. Every living soul would taste death and on the Day of Resurrection it would be revived to be paid recompense for its deeds done in this world. The non-believers, in every age, have been ridiculing the idea of resurrection raising silly questions before the prophets. Such questions were also raised before Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). The idea of resurrection, when they would be dead and reduced to bones and dust, looks to such people very strange. The Qur’an tells them that Almighty God who gave them life when they were nothing would revive them after their death as their resurrection is not more difficult for the creator of the Heavens and the Earth than their first creation. When God intends to do a thing He only says unto it: Be! and it is.

To make the non-believers understand the process of revival of the dead, the Qur’an gives example of rain again and again which revives the dead and barren land and makes it produce every kind of vegetation, plants, crops, fruits and grass to provide food to the humans and the animals. Besides, the Qur’an gives us some practical examples how the Prophets and pious persons were actually shown the process of revival of the dead. To Prophet Jesus Christ, God gave miracle that he could raise the dead with God’s leave, while Prophet Abraham was shown the revival of the birds when he had killed them, and some other man (reportedly Uzair, the Prophet of Jews) was himself given death and resurrection thereafter. The Holy Qur’an in the following verses, highlights how resurrection of the dead would take place:

1.       Or (bethink thee of) the like of him who, passing by a township which had fallen into utter ruin, exclaimed: How shall Allah give this township life after its death? And Allah made him die a hundred years, then brought him back to life. He said: How long hast thou tarried? (The man) said: I have tarried a day or part of a day. (He) said: Nay, but thou hast tarried for a hundred years. Just look at thy food and drink which have rotted! Look at thine ass! And, that We may make thee a token unto mankind, look at the bones, how We adjust them and then cover them with flesh! And when (the matter) became clear unto him, he said: I know now that Allah is Able to do all things. —2: Al–Baqarah: 259

2.       And when Abraham said (unto his Lord): My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead, He said: Dost thou not believe? Abraham said: Yea, but (I ask) in order that my heart may be at ease. (His Lord) said: Take four of the birds and cause them to incline unto thee, then place a part of them on each hill, then call them, they will come to thee in haste. And know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.—2:Al–Baqarah: 260

3.       And they swear by Allah their most binding oaths (that) Allah will not raise up him who dieth. Nay, but it is a promise (binding) upon Him in truth but most of mankind know not. That he may explain unto them that wherein they differ, and that those who disbelieved may know that they were liars. And our word unto a thing, when We intend it, is only that We say unto it: Be! and it is.—16: An–Nahl: 38-40

4.       And they say: When we are bones and fragments, shall we, forsooth, be raised up as a new creation? Say: Be ye stones or iron. Or some created thing that is yet greater in your thoughts! Then they will say: Who shall bring us back (to life). Say: He Who created you at the first. Then will they shake their heads at thee, and say: When will it be? Say: it will perhaps be soon; A day when He will call you and ye will answer with His praise, and ye will think that ye have tarried but a little while.—17: Bani Isra'il: 49-52

5.       And man saith: When I am dead, shall I forsooth be brought forth alive? Doth not man remember that We created him before, when he was naught?—19: Maryam: 66-67

6.       O mankind! If ye are in doubt concerning the Resurrection, then Lo! We have created you from dust, then from a drop of seed, then from a clot, then from a little lump of flesh shapely and shapeless, that We may make (it) clear for you. And We cause what We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed time, and afterward We bring you forth as infants, then (give you growth) that ye attain your full strength. And among you there is he who dieth (young), and among you there is he who is brought back to the most adject time of life, so that, after knowledge, he knoweth naught. And thou (Muhammad) seest the earth barren, but when We send down water thereon, it doth thrill and swell and put forth every lovely kind (of growth). That is because Allah, He is the Truth. Lo! He quickeneth the dead, and lo! He is Able to do all things; And because the Hour will come, there is no doubt thereof; and because Allah will raise those who are in the graves.
—22: Al–Hajj: 5-7

7.       And Allah it is who sendeth the winds and they raise a cloud; then We lead it unto a dead land and revive therewith the earth after its death. Such is the Resurrection.—35: Al–Fatir: 9

8.       And the trumpet is blown and lo? from the graves they hie unto their Lord. Crying: Woe upon us! Who hath raised us from our place of sleep? This is that which the Beneficent did promise, and the messengers spoke truth.—36: Ya Sin: 51-52

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3 – Day of Judgment

Allah, the Almighty God of the Universe, is the Master of the Day of Judgment. This day is also called the Day of Resurrection or the Doomsday. None except God, not even a Prophet, has knowledge when that day would come. On the Day of Resurrection, whereof there is no doubt, God will gather all the people and will Judge between them about which they differed. Every soul on that day will find itself confronted with all that it has done of good and all that it has done of evil. No intercession will be accepted for evil-doers nor any compensation or ransom will be accepted from such people though it is earthful of gold.

The Doomsday would come all of a sudden, just as a twinkling of eye even sooner than it. The day would be heavy in the heavens and the earth. The sky will become as molten copper, the hills would become as flakes of wool, mountains would be broken into scattered dust and earth would be left as an empty plain with no curve nor ruggedness. Every nursing mother will forget her nursling and every pregnant one will be delivered of her burden.

On the Day of Judgment, Book of Records would be set up, the Prophets and the witnesses would be called, mankind would look as drunken (although actually not), the voices would be hushed and God would Judge between the men to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked.

The Holy Qur’an presents a picture of the Day of Judgment in its following verses:

1.       Praise be to Allah, Lord of the worlds. The Beneficent, The Merciful. Owner of the Day of Judgment.—1: Al–Fatihah: 1-3

2.       And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.—2: Al–Baqarah: 48

3.       They ask thee of the (destined) Hour, when will it come to port. Say: Knowledge thereof is with my Lord only. He alone will manifest it at its proper time. It is heavy in the heavens and the earth. It cometh not to you save unawares. They question thee as if thou couldst be well informed thereof. Say: knowledge thereof is with Allah only, but most of mankind know not.—7: Al–A'raf:187

4.       And unto Allah belongeth the Unseen of the heavens and the earth and the matter of the Hour (of Doom) is but as a twinkling of the eye, or it is nearer still. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.—16: An–Nahl: 77

5.       And (bethink you of) the Day when We remove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so as to leave not one of them behind. And they are set before thy Lord in ranks (and it is said unto them): Now verily have ye come unto Us as We created you at the first. But ye thought that We had set no tryst for you. And the book is placed, and thou seest the guilty fearful of that which is therein, and they say: What kind of a book is this that leaveth not a small thing nor a great thing but hath counted it! And they find all that they did confronting them, and thy Lord wrongeth no one.
—18: Al–Kahf: 47-49

6.       They will ask thee of the mountains (on that day). Say: My Lord will break them into scattered dust. And leave it as an empty plain. Wherein thou seest neither curve nor ruggedness. On that day they follow the summoner who deceiveth not, and voices are hushed for the Beneficent, and thou hearest but a faint murmur. On that Day no intercession availeth save (that of) him unto whom the Beneficent hath given leave and whose word He accepteth. He knoweth (all) that is before them and (all) that is behind them, while they cannot compass it in knowledge. And faces humble them­selves before the Living, the Eternal. And he who beareth (a burden of) wrongdoing is indeed a failure (on that Day). And he who hath done some good works, being a believer. he feareth not injustice nor begrudging (of his wage).––20:Ta Ha: 105-112

7.       And We set a just balance for the Day of Resurrection so that no soul is wronged in aught. Though it be of the weight of a grain of mustard seed, We bring it. And We suffice for reckoners.—21: Al–Anbiya: 47

8.       O mankind! Fear your Lord. Lo! the earthquak of the Hour (of Doom) is a tremendous thing. On the day when ye behold it, every nursing mother will forget her nursling and every pregnant one will be delivered of her burden, and thou (Muhammad) wilt see mankind as drunken, yet they will not be drunken, but the Doom of Allah will be strong (upon them).––22: Al–Hajj: 1-2

9.       On the day when their tongues and their hands and their feet testify against them as to what they used to do,
—24: An–Nur: 24

10.   And they esteem not Allah as He hath the right to be esteemed, when the whole earth is His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and the heavens are rolled in His right hand. Glorified is He and High Exalted from all that they ascribe as partner (unto Him). And the trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens, and the earth swoon away, save him whom Allah willeth. Then it is blown a second time, and behold them standing waiting! And the earth shineth with the light of her Lord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and it is judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged. And each soul is paid in full for what it did. And He is best aware of what they do.
—39: Az–Zumar: 67-70

11.   The day when the sky will become as molten copper, And the hills become as flakes of wool, And no familiar friend will ask a question of his friend. Though they will be given sight of them. The guilty man will long to be able to ransom himself from the punishment of that day at the price of his children: And his spouse and his brother. And his kin that harboured him. And all that are in the earth, if then it might deliver him.

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4 – Paradise

On the Day of Judgment the righteous people would be rewarded with Paradise wherein they will enter and abide for ever. They may live then in the company of their parents, wives and children provided they are also do-gooders and are rewarded with Paradise. They would be welcomed by Angels and would be greeted and served by beautiful females and handsome young male servants. They will wear green robes of finest silver and gold embroidery and armlets of gold. They would sit on thrones and lie in beautiful couches. They would take pure wine causing no intoxication.

Paradise, according to the Qur’an is a garden as wide as are the heavens and the earth. It has every conceivable blessing underneath which rivers flow. Foods of all types, fruits of all varities, pure wine, water springs, canals with flowing honey and milk, beautiful virgins with modest gaze and lovely eyes as pure as if they were hidden eggs, handsome boys, finest robes, thrones and couches of golds, etc. would be there in the Paradise in plenty. Its rightful owners are only those who believe and do good works. Those who donot believe and do evil deeds would never enter in it.

In its following verses, the Qur’an paints a very beautiful and attractive picture of Paradise and the life of its inhabitants:

1.       And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) unto those who believe and do good works; that theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow; as often as they are regaled with food of the fruits thereof they say: This is what was given us afore-time; and it is given to them in resemblance. There for them are pure companions; there for ever they abide. —2: Al–Baqarah: 25

2.       And vie one with another for forgiveness from your Lord, and for a Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for those who ward off (evil);—3: Al–Imran:133

3.       Lo! They who deny Our revelations and scorn them, for them the gates of Heaven will not be opened nor will they enter the Garden until the camel goeth through the needle's eye. Thus do We requite the guilty.—7: Al–A'raf: 40

4.       And as for those who will be glad (that day) they will be in the Garden, abiding there so long as the heavens and the earth endure save for that which thy Lord willeth: a gift unfailing.
—11: Hud: 108

5.       Gardens of Eden which they enter, along with all who do right of their fathers and their helpmates and their seed. The angels enter unto them from every gate. (Saying): Peace be unto you because ye persevered. Ah, passing sweet will be the sequal of the (heavenly) Home.––13: Ar-Ra'd: 23-24

6.       Save single-minded slaves of Allah; For them there is a known provision, Fruits. And they will be honoured. In the Gardens of delight, On couches facing one another; A cup from a gushing spring is brought round for them. White, delicious to the drinkers, Wherein there is no headache nor are they made mad thereby. And with them are those of modest gaze, with lovely eyes, (Pure) as they were hidden eggs (of the ostrich).
—37: As–Saffat: 40-49

7.       O My slaves! For you there is no fear this day, nor is it ye who grieve; (Ye) who believed Our revelations and were self-surrendered. Enter the Garden, ye and your wives, to be made glad. Therein are brought round for them trays of gold and goblets, and therein is all that souls desire and eyes find sweet. And ye are immortal therein. This is the Garden which ye are made to inherit because of what ye used to do. Therein for you is fruit in plenty whence to eat.—43:Az–Zukhruf: 68-73

8.       Lo! Those who kept their duty will be in a place secure Amid gardens and water-springs, Attired in silk and silk embroidery, facing one another. Even so (it will be). And We shall wed them' unto fair ones with wide, lovely eyes. They call therein for every fruit in safety. They taste not death therein, save the first death. And He hath saved them from the doom of hell, A bounty from thy Lord. That is the supreme triumph.
—44: Ad–Dukhan:51-57

9.       A similitude of the Garden which those who keep their duty (to Allah) are promised: Therein are rivers of water unpolluted, and rivers of milk whereof the flavour changeth not, and rivers of wine delicious to the drinkers, and rivers of clear-run honey; therein for them is every kind of fruit, with pardon from their Lord.—47: Muhammad: 15

10.   Those are they who will be brought nigh. In gardens of delight; A multitude of those of old. And a few of those of later time. On lined couches. Reclining therein face to face. There wait on them immortal youths. With bowls and ewers and a cup 'from a pure spring. Wherefrom they get no aching of the head nor any madness. And fruit that they prefer. And flesh of fowls that they desire. And (there are) fair ones with wide, lovely eyes, Like unto hidden pearls. Reward for, what they used to do. There hear they no vain speaking nor recrimination, (Naught) but the saying: Peace, (and again) Peace.—56: Al–Waqi’ah:11-26

11.   And hath awarded them for all that they endured, a Garden and silk atire; Reclining therein upon couches, they will find there neither (heat of) a sun nor bitter cold. The shade thereof is close upon them and the clustered fruits thereof bow down. Goblets of silver are brought round for them, and beakers (as) of glass. (Bright as) glass but (made) of silver, which they (themselves) have measured to the measure (of their deeds). There are they watered with a cup whereof the mixture is of Zanjabil, The water of spring therein, named Salsabil. There wait on them immortal youths, whom, when thou seest, thou wouldst take for scattered pearls. When thou seest. Thou wilt see there bliss and high estate. Their raiment will be fine green silk and gold embroidery. Bracelets of silver will they wear. Their Lord will slake their thirst with a pure drink. (And it will be said unto them): Lo! this is a reward for you. Your endeavour (upon earth) hath found acceptance.
—76: Ad–Dahr: 12-22

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5 – Hell

Those who disbelieve Allah, Allah’s messengers and scorn Allah’s revelations, those who do evil deeds and commit sins, those who transgress limits prescribed by Allah and violate Divine Laws, those who donot worship Allah alone and hold partners unto Him, those who follow the Satan and rebel against God, will be thrown into Hell after their deeds are judged on the Day of Judgment as they are the rightful owners of fire. They will dwell there for ever; their’s will be a shameful doom.

Hell is full of fire and all horrible and terrible things – which human mind can imagine – to punish the wrong – doers. When their skins are consumed by fire, they will be provided fresh skins to taste the torment. Theirs will be bed of Hell, and over them coverings of Hell; sighing and wailing will be their portion and they will be abiding therein so long as the heavens and the earth endure or God wills. They will be made to drink a festering water which one can sip but can hardly swallow. Death would come to them from every side while yet they cannot die. Garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid like molten lead will be thrown on their head. Wrong – doers from the humankind and the Jinn will enter Hell. It is so spacious that it would not be filled to its full and would cry for more.

Following verses of the Qur’an draw a horrible picture of Hell and of the life of those who would be thrown into it because of their sins and evil deeds:

1.       Nay, but whosoever hath done evil and his sin surroundeth him: such are rightful owners of the Fire, they will abide therein.—2:Al–Baqarah: 81

2.       And whoso disobeyeth Allah and His messenger and transgresseth His limits, He will make him enter Fire where such will dwell for ever; his will be a shameful doom.
—4: An–Nisa: 14

3.       Lo! Those who disbelieve Our revelations, We shall expose them to the Fire. As often as their skins are consumed We shall exchange them for fresh skins that they may taste the torment. Lo! Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.—4: An–Nisa: 56

4.       He saith: Enter into the Fire among nations of the jinn and humankind who passed away before you. Every time a nation entereth, it curseth its sister (nation) till, when they have all been made to follow one another thither, the last of them saith unto the first of them: Our Lord! These led us astray, so give them double torment of the Fire, He saith: For each one there is double (torment), but ye know not. And the first of them saith unto the last of them; Ye were no whit better than us, so taste the doom for what ye used to earn.—7: Al–A'raf: 38-39

5.       Theirs will be bed of Hell, and over them coverings (of Hell). Thus do We requite wrong-doers.—7:Al–A'raf: 41

6.       As for those who will be wretched (on that day) they will be in the Fire; sighing and wailing will be their portion therein. Abiding there so long as the heavens and the earth endure save for that which thy Lord willeth. Lo! thy Lord is Doer of what He will.—11: Hud: 106-107

7.       Hell is before him, and he is made to drink a festering water. Which he sippeth but can hardly swallow, and death cometh unto him from every side while yet he cannot die, and before him is a harsh doom.––14: lbrahim: 16-17

8.       These twain (the believers and the disbelievers) are two opponents who contend concerning their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, garments of fire will be cut out for them; boiling fluid will be poured down on their heads. Whereby that which is in their bellies, and their skins too, will be melted; And for them are booked rods of iron. Whenever in their anguish, they would go forth from thence they are driven back therein and (it is said unto them): Taste the doom of burning.—22: Al–Hajj: 19-22

9.       And those who disbelieve are driven unto Hell in troops till, when they reach it and the gates thereof are opened, and the warders thereof say unto them: Came there not unto you messengers of your own, reciting unto you the revelations of your Lord and warning you of the meeting of this your Day? they say: Yea verily. But the word of doom for disbelievers is fulfilled. It is said (unto them): Enter ye the gates of Hell to dwell therein. Thus hapless is the journey's end of the scorners. ––39: Az–Zumar: 71-72

10.   On the day when We say unto Hell: Are thou filled? and it saith: Can there be more to come?—50: Qaf: 30

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