A-Z of Islam

A-Z of Islam
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          A-Z of Islam

 

                       Dr. Bilal Philips

 

Allah (God)

 

Islam is the complete submission and obedience to Allah (God). The name Allah (God) in Islam never refers to Muhammad (pbuh), as many Christians may think; Allah is the personal name of God.

 

What do Muslims believe about Allah?

 

1. He is the one God, Who has no partner.

2. Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of His creation.

3. He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just.

4. There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship besides Him.

5. He is First, Last, and Everlasting; He was when nothing was, and will be when nothing else

    remains.

6. He is the All-Knowing, and All-Merciful,the Supreme, the Sovereign.

7. It is only He Who is capable of granting life to anything.

8. He sent His Messengers (peace be upon them) to guide all of mankind.

9. He sent Muhammad (pbuh) as the last Prophet and Messenger for all mankind.

10.  His book is the Holy Qur'an, the only authentic revealed book in the world that has been

     kept without change.

11. Allah knows what is in our hearts.

 

These are some of the basic guidelines Muslims follow in their knowledge of God:

 

1.  Eliminate any anthropomorphism (human qualities) from their conception of Allah. His attributes are not like

human attributes, despite similar labels or appellations.

2. Have unwavering faith in exactly what Allah and Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) described Allah to be, no more, no

less.

3. Eradicate any hope or desire of learning or knowing the modality of His names and attributes.

4. Belief totally in all the names and attributes of Allah; one cannot believe in some and disbelieve the others.

5. One cannot accept the names of Allah without their associated attributes, i.e. one cannot say He is Al-Hayy -

'The Living' and then say that He is without life.

6. Similarity in names (or meanings) does not imply similarity in what is being described (referents). As a robotics

arm differs from a human arm, so the "hand" of Allah is nothing like a human hand, His speech is nothing like human

speech, etc.

7. Certain words are ambiguous or vague in their meanings, and thus may be susceptible to misinterpretation. Only

those meanings that are in accordance with what is specified by Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) are acceptable.

 

 

Cleanliness

 

Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness, in both its physical and spiritual aspects. On the physical side, Islam

requires the Muslim to clean his body, his clothes, his house, and the whole community, and he is rewarded by

God for doing so. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, for example:

 

"Removing any harm from the road is charity (that will be rewarded by Allah)." [Bukhari]

 

While people generally consider cleanliness a desirable attribute, Islam insists on it , making it an indispensable

fundamental of the faith. A muslim is required to to be pure morally and spiritually as well as physically. Through

the Qur'an and Sunnah Islam requires the sincere believer to sanitize and purify his entire way of life.

 

In the Qur'an Allah commends those who are accustomed to cleanliness:

 

"Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean." [2: 22]

 

In Islam the Arabic term for purity is Taharah. Books of Islamic jurisprudence often contain an entire chapter with

Taharah as a heading.

 

Allah orders the believer to be tidy in appearance:

 

"Keep your clothes clean." [74:4]

 

The Qur'an insists that the believer maintain a constant state of purity:

 

"Believers! When you prepare for prayer wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your

heads (with water) and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. If you are ritually impure bathe your whole body." [5:

6]

 

Ritual impurity refers to that resulting from sexual release, menstruation and the first forty days after childbirth.

Muslims also use water, not paper or anything else to after eliminating body wastes.

 

Prophet Muhammad )pbuh) advised the Muslims to appear neat and tidy in private and in public. Once when

returning home from battle he advised his army:

 

"You are soon going to meet your brothers, so tidy your saddles and clothes. Be distinguished in the eyes of the

people." [Abu Dawud]

 

On another occasion he said:

 

"Don't ever come with your hair and beard disheveled like a devil." [Al-Tirmidhi]

 

And on another:

 

"Had I not been afraid of overburdening my community, I would have ordered them to brush their teeth for every

prayer." [Bukhari]

 

Moral hygiene was not ignored, either, for the Prophet (pbuh) encouraged the muslims to make a special prayer

upon seeing themselves in the mirror:

 

"Allah, You have endowed me with a good form; likewise bless me with an immaculate character and forbid my

face from touching the Hellfire." [Ahmad]

 

And modesty in dress, for men as well as for women, assists one in maintaining purity of thought.

 

Being charitable is a way of purifying one's wealth. A Muslim who does not give charity (Sadaqah) and pay the

required annual Zakah, the 2.5% alms-tax, has in effect contaminated his wealth by hoarding that which rightfully

belongs to others:

 

"Of their wealth take alms so that you may purify and sanctify them." [9: 103]

 

All the laws and injunctions given by Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) are pure; on the other hand, man-made laws

suffer from the impurities of human bias and other imperfections. Thus any formal law can only be truly just when

it is purified by divine guidance - as elucidated by the Qur'an and the Sunnah - or if it is divinely ordained to begin

with - the Shari'ah.

  

 

 

Muslims Contribution To Science

 

Astronomy

 

Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and the sun are of vital importance in the

daily life of every Muslim. By the moon, Muslims determine the beginning and the end of the months in their lunar

calendar. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for prayer and fasting. It is also by means of astronomy that

Muslims can determine the precise direction of the Qiblah, to face the Ka'bah in Makkah, during prayer. The most

precise solar calendar, superior to the Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam.

 

The Qur'an contains many references to astronomy.

 

"The heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made subservient to man, including the sun, the

moon, the stars, and day and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God and never

digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life and existence, diminution and expansion, are totally

determined by the Creator." [Qur'an 30:22]

 

These references, and the injunctions to learn, inspired the early Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They

integrated the earlier works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis. Ptolemy's Almagest (the

title as we know it is Arabic) was translated, studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see

in their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran. Astronomical tables were compiled, among them

the Toledan tables, which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Also compiled were almanacs -

another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are zenith, nadir, albedo, azimuth.

 

Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of

Genghis Khan, in Persia, and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe, which led to

advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation, contributing to the European age of exploration.

 

 Geography

 

Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the Muslims' great concern for geography originated

with their religion. The Qur'an encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see God's signs and patterns

everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the

direction of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray five times a day. Muslims were also

used to taking long journeys to conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion. The far-flung

Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile large amounts of geographical and climatic information from

the Atlantic to the Pacific.

 

Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta,

renowned for their written accounts of their extensive explorations.

 

In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps,

including a world map with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities. Al-Muqdishi was the

first geographer to produce accurate maps in color.

 

It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the

Cape of Good Hope, and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships.

 

Humanity

 

Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and woman. The main sources of Islam, the Qur'an

and the Sunnah (Prophet Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be scholars, since

this is the best way for people to know Allah (God), to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for

them. Muslims were therefore eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular, and within a few years of

Muhammad's mission, a great civilization sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of Islamic

universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest

existing universities in the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European universities, such as

Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the familiar academic cap and gown originated at Al-Azhar

University.

 

Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics,

medicine, pharmacology, architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic numerals were introduced

to the world by Muslim scholars. The astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were

developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world progress, most notably in Europe's age of

exploration.

 

Muslim scholars studied the ancient civilations from Greece and Rome to China and India. The works of Aristotle,

Ptolemy, Euclid and others were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added their own

creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly

to the Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been translated into Latin, were standard text

and reference books as late as the 17th and 18th centuries.

 

Mathematics

 

It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to study and explore the universe. For example, the

Holy Qur'an states:

 

"We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are

convinced that the revelation is the truth." [Qur'an, 14:53]

 

This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the

other sciences, and they had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among geometry,

mathematics, and astronomy.

 

The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from Arabic sifr), and they organized the

numbers into the decimal system - base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unknown

quantity, i.e. variables like x.

 

The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further

developed by others, most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation, brought the Arabic

numerals along with the mathematics to Europe, through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.

 

Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in their graphic arts, and it was the great

Al-Biruni (who excelled also in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who established

trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in

number theory.

 

 Medicine

 

In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions,

how to keep it clean and safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those diseases, have been

important issues for Muslims.

 

Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your diseases", as people at that time were

reluctant to do so. He also said,

 

"God created no illness, but established for it a cure, except for old age. When the antidote is applied, the patient

will recover with the permission of God."

 

This was strong motivation to encourage Muslim scientists to explore, develop, and apply empirical laws. Much

attention was given to medicine and public health care. The first hospital was built in Baghdad in 706 AC. The

Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile hospitals, which moved from place to place.

 

Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to

help their students understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled surgery to develop very

quickly.

 

Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest

physicians in the world in the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical medicine and was

unrivaled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a

very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif).

 

Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps the greatest physician until the modern

era. His famous book, Al-Qanun fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700 years. Ibn

Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East.

 

Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing),

and in public health. Every major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals, some of them

teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The

Ottomans were particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high level of hygiene practiced in them.

 

 Definition

 

The word ISLAM has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God. This submission requires a fully conscious

and willing effort to submit to the one Almighty God. One must consciously and conscientiously give oneself to the

service of Allah. This means to act on what Allah enjoins all of us to do (in the Qur'an) and what His beloved

Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) encouraged us to do in his Sunnah (his lifestyle and sayings personifying the Qur'an).

 

Once we humble ourselves, rid ourselves of our egoism and submit totally to Allah, and to Him exclusively, in faith

and in action, we will surely feel peace in our hearts. Establishing peace in our hearts will bring about peace in our

external conduct as well.

 

Islam is careful to remind us that it not a religion to be paid mere lip service; rather it is an all-encompassing way

of life that must be practiced continuously for it to be Islam. The Muslim must practice the five pillars of the

religion: the declaration of faith in the oneness of Allah and the prophet hood of Muhammad (pbuh), prayer,

fasting the month of Ramadan, alms-tax, and the pilgrimage to Makkah; and believe in the six articles of faith:

belief in God, the Holy Books, the prophets, the angels, the Day of Judgment and God's decree, whether for good

or ill.

 

There are other injunctions and commandments which concern virtually all facets of one's personal, family and

civic life. These include such matters as diet, clothing, personal hygiene, interpersonal relations, business ethics,

responsibilities towards parents, spouse and children, marriage, divorce and inheritance, civil and criminal law,

fighting in defense of Islam, relations with non-Muslims, and so much more.

  

Human Rights

 

Islam has been from its inception very concerned with issues of human rights. Privacy, freedom, dignity and

equality are guaranteed in Islam. The holy Qur'an states clearly:

 

"There is no compulsion in religion."

 

And there are no reliable reports to confirm the old accusations that when the Muslim armies were expanding into

Asia, Africa and Europe the people were put to the sword if they failed to convert to Islam. The best proof is that

not only did the Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and Hindus in those areas not perish or otherwise disappear, they

actually flourished as protected minority communities, and many individuals rose to prominent positions in the arts,

sciences, even in government.

 

The lives, property and privacy of all citizens in an Islamic state are considered sacred, whether or not the person

is Muslim. Non-Muslims have freedom of worship and the practice of their religions, including their own family law

and religious courts. They are obliged to pay a different tax (Jizyah) instead of the Zakah, and the state is

obligated to provide both protection and government services. Before the modern era it was extremely rare to find

a state or government anywhere in the world that was as solicitous of its minorities and their civil rights as the

Islamic states.

 

In no other religion did women receive such a degree of legal and moral equality and personal respect. Moreover,

racism and tribalism are incompatible with Islam, for the Qur'an speaks of human equality in the following terms:

 

"Mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you

may come to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God's sight is the greatest of you in piety."

  

Jesus

 

Islam honors all the prophets who were sent to mankind. Muslims respect all prophets in general, but Jesus in

particular, because he was one of the prophets who foretold the coming of Muhammad. Muslims, too, await the

second coming of Jesus. They consider him one of the greatest of Allah's prophets to mankind. A Muslim does not

refer to him simply as "Jesus," but normally adds the phrase "peace be upon him" as a sign of respect.

 

No other religion in the world respects and dignifies Jesus as Islam does. The Qur'an confirms his virgin birth (a

chapter of the Qur'an is entitled "Mary"), and Mary is considered to have been one of the purest women in all

creation. The Qur'an describes Jesus' birth as follows:

 

"Behold!' the Angel said, God has chosen you, and purified you, and chosen you above the women of all nations.

Mary, God gives you good news of a word from Him, whose name shall be the Messiah, Jesus son of Mary, honored

in this world and in the Hereafter, and one of those brought near to God. He shall speak to the people from his

cradle and in maturity, and he shall be of the righteous. She said: "My Lord! How shall I have a son when no man

has touched me?' He said: "Even so; God creates what He will. When He decrees a thing, He says to it, 'Be!' and

it is." [3:42-47]

 

Muslims believe that Jesus was born immaculately, and through the same power which had brought Eve to life and

Adam into being without a father or a mother.

 

"Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He created him of dust, and then said to him,

'Be!' and he was." [3:59]

 

During his prophetic mission, Jesus performed many miracles. The Qur'an tells us that he said:

 

"I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: I make for you out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and

breathe into it and it becomes a bird by God's leave. And I heal the blind, and the lepers, and I raise the dead by

God's leave." [3:49]

 

Muhammad and Jesus, as well as the other prophets, were sent to confirm the belief in one God. This is referred

to in the Qur'an where Jesus is reported as saying that he came:

 

"To attest the law which was before me, and to make lawful to you part of what was forbidden you; I have come

to you with a sign from your Lord, so fear God and obey me." [3:50]

 

Prophet Muhammad emphasized the importance of Jesus by saying:

 

"Whoever believes there is no god but Allah, alone without partner, that Muhammad is His messenger, that Jesus

is a servant and messenger of God, His word breathed into Mary and a spirit emanating from Him, and that

Paradise and Hell are true, shall be received by God into Heaven. [Bukhari]

  

 

 

Knowledge

 

Islam urges people to read and learn on every occasion. The verses of the Qur'an command, advise, warn, and

encourage people to observe the phenomena of nature, the succession of day and night, the movements of stars,

the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies. Muslims are urged to look into everything in the universe, to travel,

investigate, explore and understand them, the better to appreciate and be thankful for all the wonders and

beauty of God's creations. The first revelation to Muhammad showed how much Islam cares about knowledge.

 

"Read, in the name of your Lord, Who created..." [96:1]

 

Learning is obligatory for both men and women. Moreover, education is not restricted to religious issues; it

includes all fields of knowledge, including biology, physics, and technology. Scholars have the highest status in

Islam, second only to that accorded to prophets.

 

Almost from the very beginnings of the Islamic state Muslims began to study and to master a number of fields of

so-called secular learning, beginning with linguistics and architecture, but very quickly extending to mathematics,

physics, astronomy, geography, medicine, chemistry and philosophy. They translated and synthesized the known

works of the ancient world, from Greece, Persia, India, even China. Before long they were criticizing, improving

and expanding on that knowledge. Centuries before the European Renaissance there were Muslim ≥Rennaissance≤

men, men who were simultaneously explorers, scientists, philosophers, physicians and poets, like Ibn Sina

(Avicenna), Umar Khayyam, and others.

 

Main Pillars

 

1. Shahadah

 

The first pillar of Islam is that a Muslim believe and declare his faith by saying the Shahadah (lit. 'witness'), also

known as the Kalimah:

 

La ilaha ila Allah; Muhammadur-rasul Allah. 'There is no god but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.'

 

This declaration contains two parts. The first part refers to God Almighty, the Creator of everything, the Lord of

the Worlds; the second part refers to the Messenger, Muhammad (pbuh) a prophet and a human being, who

received the revelation through the Archangel Gabriel, and taught it to mankind.

 

By sincerely uttering the Shahadah the Muslim acknowledges Allah as the sole Creator of all, and the Supreme

Authority over everything and everyone in the universe. Consequently the Muslim closes his/her heart and mind to

loyalty, devotion and obedience to, trust in, reliance on, and worship of anything or anyone other than Allah. This

rejection is not confined merely to pagan gods and goddesses of wood and stone and created by human hands

and imaginations; this rejection must extend to all other conceptions, superstitions, ideologies, ways of life, and

authority figures that claim supreme devotion, loyalty, trust, love, obedience or worship. This entails, for example,

the rejection of belief in such common things as astrology, palm reading, good luck charms, fortune-telling and

psychic readings, in addition to praying at shrines or graves of "saints", asking the dead souls to intercede for

them with Allah. There are no intercessors in Islam, nor any class of clergy as such; a Muslim prays directly and

exclusively to Allah.

 

Belief in the prophet hood of Muhammad (pbuh) entails belief in the guidance brought by him and contained in his

Sunnah (traditions of his sayings and actions), and demands of the Muslim the intention to follow his guidance

faithfully. Muhammad (pbuh) was also a human being, a man with feelings and emotions, who ate, drank and slept,

and was born and died, like other men. He had a pure and upright nature, extraordinary righteousness, and an

unwavering faith in Allah and commitment to Islam, but he was not divine. Muslims do not pray to him, not even

as an intercessor, and Muslims abhor the terms "Mohamedan" and "Mohamedanism".

 

2. Salah (Prayer)

 

Prayer (Salah), in the sense of worship, is the second pillar of Islam. Prayer is obligatory and must be performed

five times a day. These five times are dawn (Fajr), immediately after noon (Dhuhr), mid-afternoon ('Asr), sunset

(Maghrib), and early night (Isha'). Ritual cleanliness and ablution are required before prayer, as are clean clothes

and location, and the removal of shoes. One may pray individually or communally, at home, outside, virtually any

clean place, as well as in a mosque, though the latter is preferred. Special is the Friday noon prayer, called

Jum'ah. It, too, is obligatory and is to be done in a mosque, in congregation. It is accompanied by a sermon

(Khutbah), and it replaces the normal Dhuhr prayer.

 

There is no hierarchical clerical authority in Islam, no priests or ministers. Prayers are led by any learned person

who knows the Qur'an and is chosen by the congregation. He (or she, if the congregation is all women) is called

the imam. There is also no minimum number of congregates required to hold communal prayers. Prayer consists of

verses from the Qur'an and other prayers, accompanied by various bodily postures - standing, bowing, prostrating

and sitting. They are said in Arabic, the language of the revelation, though personal supplications (Du'ah) can be

offered in one's own language. Worshippers face the Qiblah, the direction of the Ka'bah in the city of Makkah.

 

The significance of prayer lies in one's maintaining a continuous link to God five times a day, which helps the

worshipper avoid misdeeds if he/she performs the prayers sincerely. In addition it promotes discipline,

God-consciousness and placing one's trust in Allah alone, and the importance of striving for the Hereafter. When

performed in congregation it also provides a strong sense of community, equality and brotherhood/sisterhood.

 

3. Sawm (Fasting)

 

The fourth pillar of Islam is fasting. Allah prescribes daily fasting for all able, adult Muslims during the whole of the

month of Ramadan, the ninth month of the lunar calendar, beginning with the sighting of the new moon. Exempted

from the fast are the very old and the insane. On the physical side, fasting is from first light of dawn until

sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. On the moral, behavioral side, one must abstain from

lying, malicious gossip, quarreling and trivial nonsense.

 

Those who are sick, elderly, or on a journey, and women who are menstruating, pregnant, or nursing are permitted

to break the fast, but must make up an equal number of days later in the year. If physically unable to do so, they

must feed a needy person for each day missed. Children begin to fast (and to observe the prayers) from puberty,

although many start earlier.

 

Although fasting is beneficial to the health, it is regarded principally as a method of self-purification. By cutting

oneself off from worldly pleasures and comforts, even for a short time, the fasting person gains true sympathy for

those who go hungry regularly, and achieves growth in his spiritual life, learning discipline, self-restraint, patience

and flexibility.

 

In addition to the fast proper, one is encouraged to read the entire Qur'an. In addition, special prayers, called

Tarawih, are held in the mosque every night of the month, during which a whole section of the Qur'an (Juz') is

recited, so that by the end of the month the entire Qur'an has been completed. These are done in remembrance

of the fact that the revelation of the Qur'an to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was begun during Ramadan.

 

During the last ten days - though the exact day is never known and may not even be the same every year -

occurs the Night of Power (Laylat al-Qadr). To spend that night in worship is equivalent to a thousand months of

worship, i.e. Allah's reward for it is very great.

 

On the first day of the following month, after another new moon has been sighted, a special celebration is made,

called 'Id al-Fitr. A quantity of staple food is donated to the poor (Zakat al-Fitr), everyone has bathed and put on

their best, preferably new, clothes, and communal prayers are held in the early morning, followed by feasting and

visiting relatives and friends.

 

There are other fast days throughout the year. Muslims are encouraged to fast six days in Shawwal, the month

following Ramadan, Mondays and Thursdays, and the ninth and tenth, or tenth and eleventh of Muharram, the

first month of the year. The tenth day, called Ashurah, is also a fast day for the Jews (Yom Kippur), and Allah

commanded the Muslims to fast two days to distinguish themselves from the People of the Book.

 

While fasting per se is encouraged, constant fasting, as well as monasticism, celibacy, and otherwise retreating

from the real world, are condemned in Islam. Fasting on the two festival days, 'Id al-Fitr and 'Id al-Adha, the feast

of the Hajj, is strictly forbidden.

 

4. Zakah

 

The third pillar of Islam is the alms-tax (Zakah). It is a tax on wealth, payable on various categories of property,

notably savings and investments, produce, inventory of goods, salable crops and cattle, and precious metals, and

is to be used for the various categories of distribution specified by Islamic law. It is also an act of purification

through sharing what one has with others.

 

The rationale behind this is that Muslims believe that everything belongs to God, and wealth is held by man as a

trust. This trust must be discharged, moreover, as instructed by God, as that portion of our wealth legally belongs

to other people and must be given to them. If we refuse and hoard this wealth, it is considered impure and

unclean. If, for example one were to use that wealth for charity or to finance one's pilgrimage to Makkah, those

acts would also be impure, invalid, and of course unrewarded. Allah says:

 

"Of their wealth, take alms so you may purify and sanctify them." [9:103]

 

The word Zakah means purification and growth. Our possessions are purified by setting aside that portion of it for

those in need. Each Muslim calculates his or her own Zakah individually.

 

For most purposes this involves the payment each year of 2.5% of one's capital, provided that this capital

reaches a certain minimum amount that which is not consumed by its owner. A generous person can pay more

than this amount, though it is treated and rewarded as voluntary charity (Sadaqah). This amount of money is

provided to bridge the gap between the rich and the poor, and can be used in many useful projects for the

welfare of the community.

 

Historically the pillar of Zakah became mandatory on Muslims form the second year after the Hijrah, 622 C.E. It is

mentioned more than thirty times in the Qur'an, usually in the same breath as Salah. So important is this pillar that

one is not considered a part of the Islamic brotherhood if one ignores this obligation.

 

5. Hajj

 

The fifth pillar of Islam is to make a pilgrimage (Hajj) to Makkah, in Saudi Arabia, at least once in one's lifetime.

This pillar is obligatory for every Muslim, male or female, provided that he/she is physically and financially able to

do so. Prerequisites for performing the Hajj are to be a Muslim, to be free, to be an adult or mature enough, to be

of sound mind, and to have the ability to afford the journey and maintain one's dependents back home for the

duration. The reward for the Hajj is nothing less than Paradise.

 

The Hajj is the ultimate form of worship, as it involves the spirit of all the other rituals and demands of the

believer great sacrifice. On this unique occasion, nearly two million Muslims from all over the globe meet one

another in a given year. Regardless of the season, pilgrims wear special clothes (Ihram) - two, very simple,

unsewn white garments - which strips away all distinctions of wealth, status, class and culture; all stand together

and equal before Allah (God).

 

The rites of Hajj, which go back to the time of Prophet Abraham who built the Ka'bah, are observed over five or

six days, beginning on the eighth day of the last month of the year, named Dhul-Hijjah (pilgrimage). These rites

include circumambulating the Ka'bah (Tawwaf), and going between the mountains of Safa and Marwah, as Hajjar

(Abraham's wife) did during her search for water for her son Isma'il. Then the pilgrims stand together on the wide

plain of Arafah and join in prayers for God's forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Last

Judgment. The pilgrims also cast stones at a stone pillar which represents Satan. The pilgrimage ends with a

festival, called 'Id al-Adha, which is celebrated with prayers, the sacrifice of an animal, and the exchange of

greetings and gifts in Muslim communities everywhere.

 

 

 

 

Muhammad

 

Muhammad (pbuh) was an illiterate but wise and well-respected man who was born in Makkah in the year 570

C.E., at a time when Christianity was not yet fully established in Europe. His first years were marked by the

deaths of his parents. Since his father died before his birth, his uncle, Abu Talib, from the respected tribe of

Quraysh, raised him. As Muhammad (pbuh) grew up, he became known for his truthfulness, generosity and

sincerity, so that he was sought after for his ability to arbitrate in disputes. His reputation and personal qualities

also led to his marriage, at the age of twenty-five, to Khadijah, a widow whom he had assisted in business.

Thenceforth, he became an important and trusted citizen of Makkah. Historians describe him as calm and

meditative.

 

Muhammad (pbuh) never felt fully content to be part of a society whose values he considered to be devoid of

true religious significance. It became his habit to retreat from time to time to the cave of Hira', to meditate near

the summit of Jabal al-Nur, the "Mountain of Light", near Makkah.

 

At the age of 40, while engaged in one such meditative retreat, Muhammad (pbuh) received his first revelation

from God through the Angel Gabriel. This revelation, which continued for twenty-three years, is known as the

Qur'an, the faithful recording of the entire revelation of God. The first revelation read:

 

"Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created man from a clot (of blood). Recite: Your Lord is Most Noble, Who

taught by the pen, taught man what he did not know." [96:1-5]

 

It was this reality that he gradually and steadily came to learn and believe, until he fully realized that it is the

truth.

 

His first convert was Khadijah, whose support and companionship provided necessary reassurance and strength.

He also won the support of some of his relatives and friends. Three basic themes of the early message were the

majesty of the one, unique God, the futility of idol worship, the threat of judgment, and the necessity of faith,

compassion and morality in human affairs. All these themes represented an attack on the crass materialism and

idolatry prevalent in Makkah at the time. So when he began to proclaim the message to others the Makkans

rejected him. He and his small group of followers suffered bitter persecution, which grew so fierce that in the year

622 C.E., God gave them the command to emigrate. This event, the Hijrah (migration), in which they left Makkah

for the city of Madinah, some 260 miles to the north, marked the beginning of a new era and thus the beginning of

the Muslim calendar. During his suffering, Muhammad (pbuh) drew comfort from the knowledge revealed to him

about other prophets, such as Abraham, Joseph, and Moses, each of whom had also been persecuted and tested.

 

After several years and some significant battles, the Prophet and his followers were able to return to Makkah,

where they forgave their enemies and established Islam definitively. By the time the Prophet died, at the age of

63, the greater part of Arabia had accepted Islam, and within a century of his death, Islam had spread as far

west as Spain and as far east as China. It was clear that the message was not limited to Arabs; it was for the

whole of humanity.

 

The Prophet's sayings (Hadith), are also believed to be revelation. The number of sayings collected by his

followers and scholars is about 10,000. Some typical examples of his sayings are as follows:

 

"To pursue knowledge is obligatory on every believing (man and woman)." [Ibn Majah]

 

"Removing a harmful thing from the road is charity." [Bukhari, Muslim]

"Those who do not show tenderness and love cannot expect to have tenderness shown to them." [Bukhari]

 

"Adore Allah (God) as though you see Him; even if you do not see Him, He nonetheless sees you." {Bukhari,

Muslim]

 

Although Muhammad is deeply loved, revered and emulated by Muslims as God's final messenger, he is not an

object of worship.

 

Women

 

At a time when the rest of the world, from Greece and Rome to India and China, considered women as no better

than children or even slaves, with no rights whatsoever, Islam acknowledged women's equality with men in a great

many respects. The Qur'an states:

 

"And among His signs is this: that He created mates for you form yourselves that you may find rest, peace of mind

in them, and He ordained between you love and mercy. Lo, herein indeed are signs for people who reflect."

[30:21]

 

Prophet Muhammad said:

 

"The most perfect in faith amongst believers is he who is best in manners and kindest to his wife." [Abu Dawud]

 

Muslims believe that Adam and Eve were created from the same soul. Both were equally guilty of their sin and fall

from grace, and both were forgiven by Allah. Many women in Islam have had high status; consider the fact that

the first person to convert to Islam was Khadijah, the wife of Muhammad, whom he both loved and respected. His

favorite wife after Khadijah's death, Aeisha, became renowned as a scholar and one of the greatest sources of

Hadith literature. Many of the female Companions accomplished great deeds and achieved fame, and throughout

Islamic history there have been famous and influential scholars, jurists and mystics.

 

With regard to education, both women and men have the same rights and obligations. This is clear in Prophet

Muhammad's saying:

 

"Seeking knowledge is mandatory for every believer." [Ibn Majah]

 

This implies men and women.

A woman is to be treated as God has endowed her, with rights, such as to be treated as an individual, with the

right to own and dispose of her own property and earnings, enter into contracts, even after marriage. She has the

right to be educated and to work outside the home if she so chooses. She has the right to inherit from her father,

mother, and husband. A very interesting point to note is that in Islam, unlike any other religion, a woman can be

an imam, a leader of communal prayer, for a group of women.

 

A Muslim woman also has obligations. All the laws and regulations pertaining to prayer, fasting, charity, pilgrimage,

doing good deeds, etc., apply to women, albeit with minor differences having mainly to do with female physiology.

 

Before marriage, a woman has the right to choose her husband. Islamic law is very strict regarding the necessity

of having the woman's consent for marriage. A marriage dowry (money)  is given by the groom to the bride for her

own personal use. She keeps her own family name, rather than taking her husband's. As a wife, a woman has the

right to be supported by her husband even if she is already rich. She also has the right to seek divorce and

custody of young children. She does not return the dowry, except in a few unusual situations.

 

Despite the fact that in many places and times Muslim communities have not always adhered to all or even many

of the foregoing in practice, the ideal has been there for 1400 years, while virtually all other major civilizations did

not begin to address these issues or change their negative attitudes until the 19th and 20th centuries, and there

are still many contemporary civilizations which have yet to do so.

 

 

Other Religions

 

Islam is the religion of all prophets. Muslims believe that all the prophets were sent to their respective peoples

from God (Allah). They all had the same mission and message - guiding people to the right path.

 

The three revealed, monotheistic religions, Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, go back to Abraham. The prophets of

these religions were directly descended from him - Moses, Jesus and others from Isaac, but Muhammad from

IsmaĆil. It was Prophet Abraham who had established the settlement which today is the city of Makkah, and with

his son IsmaĆil built the KaĆbah, which Muslims all over the world face when they pray.

 

Christians and Jews hold a special place in Islam. They are called the People of the Book (Ahl al-Kitab), since the

original Torah and Gospel were also divinely revealed and they shared in the prophetic tradition. Islamic states

have nearly always shown their religious minorities tolerance and respect and those communities flourished under

Islamic rule. God says:

 

"...[T]hose who believe (in the message of Islam), and the Jews, the Sabaeans, and the Christians - all those who

believe in Allah and the Last Day, and act righteously - no fear shall come upon them..." [5:69]

 

Setting up the Islamic state in Madinah, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) further warned:

 

"Whoever oppresses any Dhimmi (non-Muslim citizen of the Islamic state), I shall be his prosecutor on the Day of

Judgment."

 

In setting up the Islamic state, Prophet Muhammad made it inclusive of the Arabian Jews and Christians. Their

persons, properties, churches and synagogues were protected, freedom of worship was guaranteed, and they

controlled their own community affairs with their own civil and religious laws and courts. For most of the first

century of the Islamic state, in fact, the majority of the citizens were Christians, enjoying peace and liberty such

as they had not had even under Christian Rome or Byzantium.

 

The Jews, from the very beginning in Madinah, and later everywhere else, were lifted from the burden of being

clients of individual Arab tribes to being citizens of the state, thus freeing them to focus on their Jewishness.

When the Islamic state expanded outside Arabia the Jews of other lands were treated for the first time as

liberated citizens. Judaism flourished as never before, with Jews even serving in Muslim armies and administrations

while their culture bloomed in the arts, sciences, medicine and philosophy. This knowledge they transmitted to

their brethren in the hostile climate of Christian Europe. Even Jewish mysticism originated under the influence of

sufism and spread to northern Europe.

 

When Islam reached Persia the concept of People of the Book was extended to the Zoroastrians as well. Later,

when the Muslims conquered parts of India and encountered Buddhists and Hindus, who appeared to worship idols,

the question was referred to the ulema (council of scholars), who judged that even they could have the same

protected status as the Jews and Christians, so long as they did not fight Islam and they paid the Jizyah tax.

  

Peace

 

"Peace" is the most common word on a Muslim's tongue. Whenever two people meet, they exchange greetings,

wishing each other peace: "Peace be upon you." But peace cannot prevail except through justice. Since the

concept of justice may differ from one man to another, or from one society to another, Muslims believe that real

justice is that which is specified by Allah (God).

 

Islam permits fighting in self-defense, in defense of the religion, or by those who have been expelled forcibly from

their homes. At the same time, Islam requires one to treat one's enemy mercifully. It lays down strict rules of

combat which include prohibitions against harming civilians and against destroying crops, trees, and livestock.

Islam also requires that if an enemy declares his desire to end hostilities and seek peace, the Muslims must do the

same.

 

The concept of Jihad (struggling in the cause of Allah) is stated in the Qur'an. Allah said: "Fight in the cause of

God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits. God does not love transgressors." [2:19] Jihad is never to

be waged to force anybody to choose a particular religion. On the contrary, it is to waged to protect his right to

choose freely. Therefore, if there is a force in the world that tries to prevent a person from practicing this right,

Jihad may lead to fighting the force that is trying to prevent him from exercising free will.

 

 

 

 

 

Relevance

 

Since Islam is the last religion revealed by Allah, it possesses some elements that make it unique. One of these is

its relevance for human beings regardless of place and time.

 

This means that Islam - submission to God - is a comprehensive institution which includes all the guidelines

necessary for all aspects of life. Therefore, the best way to understand Islam is to look at it as more than a

religion - as a complete way of life. In other words, it is a system which regulates every aspect of life, dealing

with all issues - social, economic, educational, judicial, health, and even military. Thus, it is suitable for all human

beings and for all times, since it is the final religion. Islamic law aims to achieve five goals for human beings in life:

protecting the religion, protecting one's self, protecting one's possessions, protecting one's mind, and protecting

one's offspring.

 

Therefore, God (Allah) decided on two main domains of law:

 

1. If the domain always requires change and progress, Allah legislated comprehensive yet flexible rules and gave

people the chance to create and develop the necessary laws to satisfy the specific needs of a certain period of

time. For example, in the rule of consultation (Shura), Allah decided that it should be the general rule for any

government; however, its form and style are left open for people to choose and decide according to their needs.

 

2. If the domain does not require or lend itself to change or progress, Allah legislated fixed and detailed laws that

govern all issues related to a specific area. Thus, there is no way for man to change or develop those laws, which

were made for the welfare of all mankind. For example, the area of worshipping God contains fixed details which

cannot be changed at all. These regard prayer, fasting, making pilgrimage, etc. Another example is in family

matters, such as the laws of marriage, divorce, and inheritance.

 

To show how Islam cares for the environment, one can cite the many laws that protect the environment. About

fourteen hundred years ago. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:

 

"The world is green and beautiful, and Allah has appointed you as His stewards over it. He sees how you acquit

yourselves."

 

Muhammad showed how important plants and trees are by saying: "Whoever plants a tree and looks after it with

care until it matures and becomes productive will be rewarded in the Hereafter." Even in the territory of an enemy,

Islam's care for plants, animals, and trees is profound. Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, or successor, to Muhammad

(pbuh), instructed his troops that he was sending into battle not to cut down any trees or kill any animals except

for food.

 

These are but a few examples of how Islam remains relevant in the modern world.

 

Sources

The ultimate manifestation of God's grace for man, the ultimate wisdom, and the ultimate beauty of expression:

in short, the word of God.≤ This is how the German scholar, Muhammad Asad, once described the Qur'an. If one

were to ask any Muslim to depict it, most likely they would offer similar words. The Qur'an, to the Muslim, is the

irrefutable, inimitable Word of God. It was revealed by God Almighty, through the instrument of Prophet

Muhammad (pbuh). The Prophet (pbuh) himself had no role in authoring the Qur'an, he was merely a human

secretary, repeating the dictates of the Divine Creator:

 

"He (Muhammad) does not speak of his own desire. It is no less than an Inspiration sent down to him." [53:3-4]

 

The Qur'an was revealed in Arabic, to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), over a period of twenty-three years. It is

composed in a style so unique, that it cannot be deemed either poetry or prose, but somehow a mixture of both.

The Qur'an is imimitable; it cannot be simulated or copied, and God Almighty challenges mankind to pursue such an

endeavor if he thinks he can:

 

"Or do they say he forged it? Say: Bring then a chapter like unto it, and call (to your aid) anyone you can, beside

God, if it be you speak the truth." [10:38].

 

The Qur'an's language is indeed sublime, its recitation moving, as one non-Muslim scholar noted, it was like ≥the

cadence of my heartbeat≤. Due to its unique style of language, the Qur'an is not only highly readable, but also

relatively easy to remember. This latter aspect has played an important role not only in the Qur'an's preservation,

but in the spiritual life of Muslims as well. God Himself declares,

 

"And We have indeed made the Qur'an easy to understand and remember; then is there anyone that will receive

admonition?" [54:17]

 

One of the most important characteristics of the Qur'an is that it remains today, the only holy book which has

never changed; it has remained free from any and all adulterations. Sir William Muir noted, "There is probably in

the world no other book which has remained (fourteen) centuries with so pure a text." The Qur'an was written

down during the lifetime and under the supervision of the Prophet, who himself was illiterate, and it was canonized

shortly after his death by a rigorous method which scrutinized both written and oral traditions. Thus its

authenticity is unblemished, and is its preservation is seen as the fulfillment of God's promise:

 

"We have, without doubt, sent down the Message, and We will assuredly guard it from corruption." [15:9]

 

The Qur'an is a book which provides the human being the spiritual and intellectual nourishment he/she craves. Its

major themes include the oneness of God, the purpose of human existence, faith and God-consciousness, the

Hereafter and its significance. The Qur'an also lays a heavy emphasis upon reason and understanding. In these

spheres of human understanding, the Qur'an goes beyond just satisfying the human intellect; it causes one to

reflect on implications. There are Qur'anic challenges and prophecies. One of the most exciting fields in recent

years has been the discovery that, of the significant amount of scientific information in the Qur'an, including the

event of the Big Bang, embryological data, and other information concerning astronomy biology, etc., there is not

a single statement that has not been borne out by modern discoveries In short, the Qur'an fulfills the heart, the

soul, and the mind.

 

Perhaps the best description of the Qur'an was given by Ali, the cousin of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) when he

expounded upon it as,

 

"The Book of God. In it is the record of what was before you, the judgment of what is among you, and the

prophecies of what will come after you. It is decisive, not a case for levity. Whoever is a tryant and ignores the

Qur'an will be destroyed by God. Whoever seeks guidance from other than it will be misguided. The Qur'an is the

unbreakable bond of connection with God; it is the remembrance full of wisdom and the straight path. The Qur'an

does not become distorted by tongues. nor can it be deviated by caprices; it never dulls from repeated study;

scholars will always want more of it. The wonders of the Qur'an are never ending. Whoever speaks from it will

speak the truth, whoever rules with it will be just, and whoever holds fast to it will be guided to the straight

path." [Al-Tirmidhi]

 

 

Sunnah

 

The term Sunnah comes from the root word sanna, which means to pave the way or make a path easily passable,

such that it becomes a commonly followed way by everyone afterwards. Thus sunnah can be used to describe a

street or road or path on which people, animals, and cars travel. Additionally, it can apply to a prophetic way, i.e.

the law that they brought and taught as an explanation or further clarification of a divinely revealed book.

Normally, the prophetic way includes references to his sayings, actions, physical features and character traits.

 

From the Islamic standpoint, Sunnah refers to anything narrated or related about the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh),

authentically traced to him regarding his speech, actions, traits, and silent approvals, before and after the

revelation.

 

Each narration is composed of two parts: the isnad and the matn. The isnad refers to a chain of people who

narrated a paricular narration. The matn is the actual text of the narration. The isnad must comprise upright and

sincere individuals whose integrity is unquestionable.

 

The Speech of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 

The speech of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) refers to his sayings. For example, he said:

 

"Actions are judged by their intentions; everyone will be rewarded according to his/her intention. So whoever

migrates for the sake of Allah and His Prophet then his migration will be noted as a migration for the sake of Allah

and His Prophet. Conversely, one who migrates only to obtain something worldly or to marry a woman, then his

migration will be worth what he had inteded.≤ [Bukhari]. The Prophet (pbuh) also said: ≥Whoever believes in Allah

and the Last Day, should say something good or keep quiet.

 

The above two accounts clearly show that the Prophet (pbuh) spoke these words. Consequently, these are

known as his speech.

 

The Actions of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 

His actions pertain to anything he did, as authentically reported by the Sahabah (Companions). For instance,

Hudhayfah reported that whenever the Prophet (pbuh) got up at night, he would clean his teeth with a

tooth-stick. Also A'ishah reported that the Prophet (pbuh) loved to do everything starting with the right side -

putting on shoes, walking, cleaning himself, and in all his affairs generally.

 

The Silent Approvals of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 

His silent approvals on different issues meant his not opposing or minding what he saw, heard or knew of the

actions or sayings of his Companions. On one occasion, for example, the Prophet (pbuh) learned of actions of

some of his Companions from other Companions. Soon after the battle of Khandaq, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

gave the order to the Companions to move quickly to surround the tribe of Banu Quraydah, encouraging them to

hurry so that perhaps they would pray 'Asr (the late afternoon prayer) there. Some of the Companions of the

Prophet (pbuh) responded immediately and left without praying 'Asr. They arrived after sunset, pitched camp and

prayed 'Asr- after sunset. At the same time another group of Companions formulated their judgment differently.

They thought that the Prophet (pbuh) was merely encouraging them to hasten to their destination, rather than to

delay 'Asr until after sunset. Consequently, they decided to stay in Madinah until they had prayed 'Asr.

Immediately thereafter, they hastened towards the tribe of Banu Quraydhah. When the Prophet (pbuh) was told

of how each group responded differently to his announcement, he (pbuh) affirmed both judgments.

 

Physical and Moral Traits of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

 

Everything authentically narrated concerning the Prophet's complexion and the rest of his physical features is also

included in the definition of sunnah. Umm Ma'bad described what she saw of the great Prophet (pbuh). She said:

 

"I saw a man, his face radiant with a bright glow, not too thin or too fat, elegant and handsome. His eyes had a

deep black hue with long eyelashes. His voice was pleasant and his neck long. He had a thick beard. His long black

eyebrows were beautifully arched and connected to each other. In silence, he remained dignified, commanding

utmost awe and respect. When he spoke, his speech was brilliant. Of all people he was the most handsome and

the most pleasant, even when approaching from a distance. In person, he was unique and most admirable. Graced

with eloquent logic, his speech was moderate. His logical arguments were well organized as though they were a

string of gems. He was not too tall or too short, but exactly in between. Among three, he appeared the most

radiant and most vibrant. He had companions who affectionately honored him. When he spoke, they listened to

him attentively. When he gave orders, they were quick to execute them. They rallied around him guarding him. He

never frowned or spoke frivolously." [Hakim]

 

Along with his physical features, his Companions also described his habits and behavior with people. Once Anas

reported:

 

"I served the Prophet of Allah (pbuh) for ten years. Never once did he so much as express any bit of displeasure

nor did he ever ask 'Why did you do it?' for something I did or 'Why didn't you do it?' for something I didn't do."

 

From the above we can clearly see that when the term sunnah appears in a general context refering to Prophet

Muhammad (pbuh) it comprises anything narrated about the Prophet (pbuh) and authentically traced to him. Once

a Muslim learns of the authenticity of any narration, he/she is obliged to follow and obey it accordingly. Such

obedience is mandated by Allah as He declares

 

"...and obey Allah and His Prophet and do not turn away when you hear (him speak)." [8:20]

 

At times, some Muslims are perplexed when people say that sunnah is something only recommended and is not

mandatory. Thus they conclude that we are only required to follow the Qur'an and not the Sunnah. Such an

argument results from a gross misunderstanding. Scholars of Islamic jurisprudence use the term sunnah to denote

what is authentically established of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in deeds which were not subsequently made

mandatory by Allah.

 

They further hold that this includes any saying of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) where he encourages Muslims to do

a particular task and compliments those who imbibe such attributes. Thus to them, the term sunnah denotes what

is authentically established of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in deeds which he did voluntarily and which were not

subsequently made mandatory by Allah. They further hold that this includes any saying of Prophet Muhammad

(pbuh) where he encourages Muslims to do a particular task and compliments those who imbibe such attributes.

Thus to them, the term sunnah refers to what is "recommended" and is not mandatory (fard or wajib).

 

From the above, we can clearly see that the term sunnah takes on different meanings when used by different

Islamic disciplines.

 

 

Tolerance

 

Freedom of belief is guaranteed in Islam. It should be very clear that Islam tolerates not only other faiths but

even its enemies. This is stated clearly in the Qur'an:

 

"God forbids you not with regard to those who fight you not for (your) faith, nor drive you out of your homes,

from dealing kindly and justly with them, for God loves those who are just." [60:8]

 

It is one function of Islamic law to protect the privileged status of minorities, and this is why non-Muslim places of

worship have flourished all over the Islamic world. Islamic law also permits non-Muslim minorities to set up their

own courts to implement family laws drawn up by the minorities themselves and to govern their own affairs.

 

History provides many examples of Muslim tolerance towards other faiths. When the great leader and second

Caliph, Umar, entered Jerusalem in the year 634, Islam guaranteed freedom of worship to all religious communities

in the city. In fact, so careful was Umar in setting an example for his people that he not only went to a church to

pray, he prayed outside in the courtyard, lest his followers after his death be tempted to convert the church into

a mosque.

 

Islam teaches that the closest to Allah and the most beloved of Allah are those who are the best in piety. Thus all

people, male and female, and regardless of race, color, nationality or ethnicity, are considered and treated as

equal before Allah and before the law. This concept of tolerance did not reach the West even in theory until the

18th century, and in practice not until the 20th century.

 

 

 

Universality

 

In the Qur'an, Allah says:

 

"We have sent you (Muhammad) as a mercy for all nations." [21:107]

 

Thus Islam is not restricted to any particular race or nation, as many other religions are, but is universal, meaning

that its message applies to all humanity, at all times, in all places.

 

Since Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was the last prophet and messenger, his message applies to all future

generations. All previous prophets, from Adam, Noah and Abraham to Moses and Jesus, were also Muslims:

 

"Not a single messenger did We send before you without this inspiration sent by Us to him  that there is no god

but I, therefore worship and serve Me." [21:25]

 

Since the Qur'an is the final testament, with every word and every letter unadulterated and unchanged, and

protected by Allah from any change or tampering, it is the final revelation, and no other law will ever supersede it.

 

It applies, moreover, to every aspect of one's daily life, including personal, social, legal, economic, political, even

military. Furthermore, Islam affects every part of the individual - physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual.

 

 

 

 

 

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